Communication report regarding the incidences of drought conditions in Poland

Year: 2019; period: 02 (1.IV - 31.V)

The Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation – State Research Institute, in accordance with an Act of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development has developed the climatic water balance values for all 2478 Polish local districts (gminas) and, based on soil categories, calculated the current risk of agricultural drought.

In the second reporting period, i.e. from April 1st to May 31st 2019, IUNG-PIB stated agricultural drought conditions in Poland.

The average of Climatic Water Balance values, which are the basis for assessing the risk of agricultural drought, was negative and equalled -21 mm. It has increased by 27 mm in comparison to the previous sixty-day reporting period (March 21st - May 20th).

The lowest CWB values, from -120 mm to -139 mm and less were recorded for Lubuskie Lake District, Kutno Plain and Szczecin Coast: Uznam, Wolin, Trzebiatowskie Coast, Gryficka, Pyrzycka and Wełtyńska Plains, and Szczecińskie Hills. Similar CWB values were recorded in Slovincian Coast, Żuławy, Eastern Suwałki Lake Districts and Bielska Plain. In the rest of central and northern Poland the CBW values ranged from -50 to -120 mm. The highest CBW values were recorded in the south, in śląskie, świętokrzyskie, małopolskie and podkarpackie voivodeships, and in the southern part of dolnośląskie, opolskie and lubelskie voivodeships, ranging from -50 to more than 50 mm.

Agricultural drought was stated in the following voivodeships:

  • Zachodniopomorskie,
  • Pomorskie,
  • Łódzkie,
  • Podlaskie,
  • Lubuskie,
  • Warmińsko-mazurskie,
  • Mazowieckie,
  • Wielkopolskie.

Agricultural drought was recorded in the following crops:

  • Spring cereals,
  • Winter cereals,
  • Strawberries.

In the second reporting period, from April 1st to May 31st 2019 the highest risk of agricultural drought occurred for spring cereals. In Poland agricultural drought occurred in 145 local districts (gminas), which constitute 5.85% of all the local districts in Poland. In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has increased by 77. Agricultural drought occurred in 8 voivodeships, in the area of 0.91% of arable land. Table 1 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in spring cereals in particular voivodeshpis.

Table 1. Agricultural drought in spring cereals

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.zachodniopomorskie1134539.824.42
2.pomorskie1232419.511.71
3.łódzkie1773016.954.40
4.podlaskie1181714.412.72
5.lubuskie8289.760.74
6.warmińsko-mazurskie11676.030.14
7.mazowieckie314113.500.52
8.wielkopolskie22631.330.02

Agricultural drought occurred also in winter cereals. It was recorded in 61 local districts (gminas) in Poland (2.46% of all the local districts in the country), which is 16 more than in the previous reporting period. Agricultural drought occurred in 7 voivodeships, in the area of 0.29% of arable land. Table 2 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in winter cereals in particular voivodeships.

Table 2. Agricultural drought in winter cereals

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.zachodniopomorskie1131916.811.31
2.pomorskie123118.940.44
3.podlaskie118108.471.22
4.łódzkie177147.911.71
5.warmińsko-mazurskie11643.450.05
6.lubuskie8222.440.01
7.mazowieckie31410.320.01

Agricultural drought occurred also in strawberries. It was recorded in 20 local districts (gminas) in Poland (0.81% of all local districts in the country). The number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 4 in relation to the previous reporting period. Agricultural drought occurred in 4 voivodeships, in the area of 0.02% of arable land. Table 3 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in strawberries in particular voivodeshpis.

Table 3. Agricultural drought in strawberries

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.zachodniopomorskie11387.080.24
2.podlaskie11865.080.08
3.warmińsko-mazurskie11632.590.02
4.pomorskie12332.440.01

April was warm this year, with temperatures ranging from 7 to more than 11°C. The highest temperatures were recorded in the south-western part of Poland (from 10 to more than 11°C). The further to the north, the lower temperatures occurred (7-9°C). In the whole country temperatures were 1-2°C higher than the multiannual norm.

In the first decade of May the highest temperatures (above 9.5°C) were recorded in Masovian and Silesian Lowlands, Sandomierz Basin and Carpathian Foothills, whilst the lowest temperatures occurred in Pomeranian Lake District (below 8°C). The second and third decades of the month were the warmest in the eastern regions, with temperatures ranging from 13°C to more than 16°C (in the first decade) and from 15 to 16.5°C (in the second). The lowest temperatures were recorded in the northern and south-western regions, ranging from 11 to more than 11.5°C (in the first decade) and from 12 to 14°C (in the second).

In April precipitation varied across the country. Particularly scarce precipitation was recorded in the north of Poland (below 10 mm), where it constituted from below 10 to 40% of the multiannual norm. The further to the south, the more intense rainfalls occurred: exceeding 100 mm, which constituted 100-140% of the norm in these areas.

In May precipitation distribution in Poland varied as well. In the first decade the highest precipitation was recorded in the south-eastern regions (ranging from 20 to more than 50 mm) and the lowest (below 5 mm) in the eastern part of the country. In other areas precipitation ranged from 5 to 20 mm. In the second decade rainfall was more intense, especially in the east of Poland, where it ranged from 35 to more than 50 mm. Scarce rainfalls were recorded in Południowowielkopolska Lowland, ranging from 5 mm to 25 mm. In the third decade intense rainfalls still occurred mostly in the southern regions of the country, exceeding 100 mm. High precipitation was also recorded in Silesian, Masovian and Wielkopolska Lowlands, Małopolska Upland and Masurian Lake District, ranging from 20 to 35 mm. Low precipitation occurred in Pomeranian Lake District, where it ranged from below 5 to 20 mm.

IUNG-PIB states occurrence of water shortages ranging from -50 to -120 mm in vast areas of central and northern Poland, or locally even from -120 to -139 mm. In areas most affected by water shortages causing yield reduction by at least 20% in relation to the yield obtained in average weather conditions crop losses occurred in spring and winter cereals and strawberries. In the south of the country water resources are large (and have further increased in recent days) which results in the excess of water on fields and, consequently, will cause a significant reduction of yield.

Executive Director

Prof. dr hab. Wiesław Oleszek

Report prepared by:

Dr hab. Andrzej Doroszewski, prof. nadaw.

Dr hab. Rafał Pudełko

Dr Katarzyna Żyłowska

Dr Jan Jadczyszyn

Mgr Piotr Koza

Mgr Elżbieta Wróblewska

Mgr Agata Nowak