Communication report regarding the incidences of drought conditions in Poland

Year: 2019; period: 03 (11.IV - 10.VI)

The Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation – State Research Institute, in accordance with an Act of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development has developed the climatic water balance values for all 2477 Polish local districts (gminas) and, based on soil categories, calculated the current risk of agricultural drought.

In the third reporting period, i.e. from April 11th to June 10th, 2019, IUNG-PIB stated agricultural drought conditions in Poland.

The average of Climatic Water Balance values, which are the basis for assessing the risk of agricultural drought, was negative and equalled -35 mm. It has decreased by 14 mm in comparison to the previous sixty-day reporting period (April 1st - May 30th).

The most severe water shortage, from -100 mm to -159 mm was recorded in the north of the country. In Wielkopolska Lowland, Wielkopolskie Lake District, Slovincian Coast, the northern part of Masurian Lake District and in Podlaska Lowland the water deficit ranged from 120 to 159 mm. In the south of Poland CWB was below -100 mm and even reaching positive values near the border.

Agricultural drought was stated in the following voivodeships:

  • Zachodniopomorskie,
  • Pomorskie,
  • Łódzkie,
  • Podlaskie,
  • Lubuskie,
  • Warmińsko-mazurskie,
  • Mazowieckie,
  • Wielkopolskie,
  • Kujawsko-pomorskie.

Agricultural drought was recorded in the following crops:

  • Spring cereals,
  • Winter cereals,
  • Strawberries
  • Fruit shrubs.

In the third reporting period, from April 11th to June 10th, 2019, the highest risk of agricultural drought occurred for spring cereals. In Poland agricultural drought occurred in 389 local districts (gminas), which constitute 15.7% of all the local districts in Poland. In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has increased by 244. Agricultural drought occurred in 9 voivodeships, in the area of 4.33% of arable land. Table 1 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in spring cereals in particular voivodeshpis.

Table 1. Agricultural drought in spring cereals

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1wielkopolskie22612354.4214.84
2łódzkie1778849.7219.50
3podlaskie1184336.449.84
4zachodniopomorskie1132925.661.42
5lubuskie822024.393.77
6warmińsko-mazurskie1162420.691.16
7pomorskie1232016.263.11
8mazowieckie3143912.422.94
9kujawsko-pomorskie14432.080.15

Agricultural drought occurred also in winter cereals. It was recorded in 209 local districts (gminas) in Poland (8.44% of all the local districts in the country), which is 148 more than in the previous reporting period. Agricultural drought occurred in 8 voivodeships, in the area of 2.02% of arable land. Table 2 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in winter cereals in particular voivodeships.

Table 2. Agricultural drought in winter cereals

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1łódzkie1776737.859.41
2wielkopolskie2266428.326.86
3podlaskie1182521.195.17
4pomorskie1231411.381.72
5mazowieckie314247.641.75
6zachodniopomorskie11365.310.10
7lubuskie8244.880.11
8warmińsko-mazurskie11654.310.18

Agricultural drought occurred also in strawberries. It was recorded in 105 local districts (gminas) in Poland (4.24% of all local districts in the country). The number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 85 in relation to the previous reporting period. Agricultural drought occurred in 6 voivodeships, in the area of 0.78% of arable land. Table 3 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in strawberries in particular voivodeshpis.

Table 3. Agricultural drought in strawberries

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1łódzkie1773620.345.22
2podlaskie1181613.561.94
3wielkopolskie226229.731.21
4pomorskie123118.941.28
5mazowieckie314196.050.83
6warmińsko-mazurskie11610.860.02

In this reporting period agricultural drought affected also fruit shrubs. It was recorded in 48 local districts (gminas) in Poland (1.94% of all local districts in the country). Agricultural drought in fruit shrubs occurred in 4 voivodeships, in the area of 0.39% of arable land. Table 4 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in fruit shrubs in particular voivodeshpis.

Table 4. Agricultural drought in fruit shrubs

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1łódzkie1772312.993.22
2podlaskie118119.320.98
3pomorskie12364.880.83
4mazowieckie31482.550.39

April was warm this year, with temperatures ranging from 7 to more than 11°C. The highest temperatures were recorded in the south-western part of Poland (from 10 to more than 11°C) whilst the lowest temperatures occurred in the north of the country (7-9°C). In the whole country temperatures exceeded the multiannual norm by 1 to more than 2°C.

In the first decade of May the highest temperatures (above 9.5°C) were recorded in Masovian and Silesian Lowlands, Sandomierz Basin and Carpathian Foothills, whilst the lowest temperatures occurred in Pomeranian Lake District (below 8°C). The second and third decades of the month were the warmest in the eastern regions, with temperatures ranging from 13°C to more than 16°C (in the first decade) and from 15 to 16.5°C (in the second). The lowest temperatures were recorded in the northern and south-western regions, ranging from 11 to more than 11.5°C (in the first decade) and from 12 to 14°C (in the second).

The first decade of June was very warm. In the majority of areas the air temperature ranged from 20 to 22°C, or even exceeded 22°C. The lowest temperatures occurred in the northern and southern parts of the country, ranging from 19 to 20°C.

In April precipitation varied across the country. Particularly scarce precipitation was recorded in the north of Poland (below 10 mm), where it constituted from below 10 to 40% of the multiannual norm. The further to the south, the more intense rainfalls occurred: exceeding 100 mm, which constituted 100-140% of the norm in these areas.

In May precipitation distribution in Poland varied as well. In the first decade the highest precipitation was recorded in the south-eastern regions (ranging from 20 to more than 50 mm) and the lowest (below 5 mm) in the eastern part of the country. In other areas precipitation ranged from 5 to 20 mm. In the second decade rainfall was more intense, especially in the east of Poland, where it ranged from 35 to more than 50 mm. Scarce rainfalls were recorded in Południowowielkopolska Lowland, ranging from 5 mm to 25 mm. In the third decade intense rainfalls still occurred, mostly in vast areas in the south of the country, exceeding 100 mm. High precipitation was also recorded in Silesian, Masovian and Wielkopolska Lowlands, Małopolska Upland and Masurian Lake District, ranging from 20 to 35 mm. Low precipitation occurred in Pomeranian Lake District, where it ranged from below 5 to 20 mm.

The first decade of June was mostly dry in the majority of areas, with precipitation below 5 mm or none. Only in the north-western part of the country precipitation was higher, ranging from 10 to 50 mm, and in the eastern regions, where it ranged from 10 to 30 mm.

IUNG-PIB stated the increase of water shortages for crops, now ranging from -100 to -159 mm in vast areas of central and northern Poland. In areas most affected by water shortages causing yield reduction by at least 20% in relation to the yield obtained in average weather conditions crop losses occurred in spring and winter cereals and strawberries. In relation to the previous reporting period the risk of agricultural drought has increased, now including also fruit shrubs. The number of voivodeships affected by drought has also grown: from 8 to 9. In the south of the country water resources are still very large, which results in the excess of water available for crops.

Executive Director

Prof. dr hab. Wiesław Oleszek

Report prepared by:

Dr hab. Andrzej Doroszewski, prof. nadzw.

Dr hab. Rafał Pudełko

Dr Katarzyna Żyłowska

Dr Jan Jadczyszyn

Mgr Piotr Koza

Mgr Elżbieta Wróblewska

Mgr Agata Nowak