Communication report regarding the incidences of drought conditions in Poland

Year: 2019; period: 04 (21.IV - 20.VI)

The Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation – State Research Institute, in accordance with an Act of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development has developed the climatic water balance values for all 2477 Polish local districts (gminas) and, based on soil categories, calculated the current risk of agricultural drought.

In the fourth reporting period, i.e. from April 21st to June 20th, 2019, IUNG-PIB stated agricultural drought conditions in Poland.

The average of Climatic Water Balance values, which are the basis for assessing the risk of agricultural drought, was negative and equalled -36 mm. It has decreased by 1 mm in comparison to the previous sixty-day reporting period (April 11th - June 10th).

The most severe water shortage in the current reporting period, from -170 mm to -209 mm was recorded in Lubuskie Lake District. A considerable water deficit, from -120 mm to -170 mm was recorded in the northern part of Wielkopolskie Lake District, in Wielkopolska, Podlaska and Silesian Lowlands, in the southern part of Masovian Lowland, eastern part of Slovincian Coast, and in Polesie Lubelskie. In the majority of the country water deficit ranged from -60 to -119 mm, whilst in the south of Poland and in Masurian Lake District the CWB values were above -59 mm, or even reaching positive values.

Agricultural drought was stated in the following voivodeships:

  • Lubuskie,
  • Wielkopolskie,
  • Łódzkie,
  • Podlaskie,
  • Mazowieckie,
  • Zachodniopomorskie,
  • Dolnośląskie,
  • Lubelskie,
  • Pomorskie,
  • Kujawsko-pomorskie.

Agricultural drought was stated in the following voivodeships:

  • Spring cereals,
  • Winter cereals,
  • Fruit shrubs,
  • Strawberries,
  • Rape and turnip rape,
  • Legumes,
  • Maize for grain,
  • Maize for silage,
  • Fruit trees,
  • Ground vegetables,
  • Tobacco.

In the fourth reporting period, from April 21st to June 20th, 2019, the highest risk of agricultural drought occurred for spring cereals. In Poland agricultural drought occurred in 549 local districts (gminas), which constitute 22.16% of all the local districts in Poland. In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has increased by 160. Agricultural drought occurred in 10 voivodeships, in the area of 9.43% of arable land. Table 1 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in spring cereals in particular voivodeships.

Table 1. Agricultural drought in spring cereals

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie826579.2760.37
2.wielkopolskie22617878.7635.33
3.łódzkie17710157.0626.28
4.podlaskie1184033.907.40
5.mazowieckie3147222.935.44
6.zachodniopomorskie1132118.583.96
7.dolnośląskie1692917.164.03
8.lubelskie2132612.212.70
9.pomorskie1231512.202.96
10.kujawsko-pomorskie14421.390.08

In this reporting period agricultural drought occurred also in winter cereals. It was recorded in 322 local districts (gminas) in Poland (13.0% of all the local districts in the country), which is 113 more than in the previous reporting period. Agricultural drought occurred in 8 voivodeships, in the area of 4.52% of arable land. Table 2 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in winter cereals in particular voivodeships.

Table 2. Agricultural drought in winter cereals

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie826275.6149.35
2.wielkopolskie22611852.2116.96
3.łódzkie1776033.908.06
4.zachodniopomorskie1131210.622.22
5.podlaskie1181210.172.46
6.dolnośląskie1691710.061.33
7.mazowieckie314309.551.92
8.pomorskie123118.941.45

In this reporting period agricultural drought affected also fruit shrubs. It was recorded in 271 local districts (gminas) in Poland (10.94% of all local districts in the country). Agricultural drought in fruit shrubs occurred in 8 voivodeships, in the area of 4.19% of arable land. In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has increased by 223. Table 3 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in fruit shrubs in particular voivodeships.

Table 3. Agricultural drought in fruit shrubs

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie826073.1750.46
2.wielkopolskie2269642.4815.43
3.łódzkie1774927.686.54
4.zachodniopomorskie113108.852.24
5.mazowieckie314278.601.62
6.podlaskie11897.631.95
7.pomorskie12397.321.37
8.dolnośląskie169116.510.91

Agricultural drought occurred also in strawberries. It was recorded in 198 local districts (gminas) in Poland (7.99% of all local districts in the country). The number of gminas affected by drought has increased by 93 in relation to the previous reporting period. Agricultural drought occurred in 8 voivodeships, in the area of 3.07% of arable land. Table 4 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in strawberries in particular voivodeships.

Table 4 Agricultural drought in strawberries

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie825769.5146.08
2.wielkopolskie2266729.659.54
3.łódzkie1772916.384.37
4.zachodniopomorskie11387.081.80
5.pomorskie12386.501.04
6.mazowieckie314185.730.96
7.dolnośląskie16974.140.37
8.podlaskie11843.391.09

In the current reporting period agricultural drought affected also rape and turnip rape. It was recorded in 158 local districts (gminas) in Poland (6.38% of all local districts in the country). Agricultural drought in rape and turnip rape occurred in 8 voivodeships, in the area of 42.43% of arable land. Table 5 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in rape and turnip rape in particular voivodeships.

Table 5. Agricultural drought in rape and turnip rape

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie825364.6341.41
2.wielkopolskie2265122.576.81
3.łódzkie1772312.993.23
4.zachodniopomorskie11376.191.30
5.pomorskie12354.070.78
6.mazowieckie314123.820.69
7.podlaskie11832.540.39
8.dolnośląskie16942.370.17

Agricultural drought occurred also in legumes. It was recorded in 103 local districts (gminas) in Poland (4.16% of all local districts in the country), in 7 voivodeships, in the area of 1.76% of arable land. Table 6 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in legumes in particular voivodeships.

Table 6. Agricultural drought in legumes

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie825060.9837.07
2.wielkopolskie2263113.724.91
3.zachodniopomorskie11365.311.05
4.łódzkie17795.080.77
5.pomorskie12321.630.11
6.mazowieckie31441.270.04
7.dolnośląskie16910.590.06

Agricultural drought affected also maize for grain. It was recorded in 70 local districts (gminas) in Poland (2.83% of all local districts in the country), in 4 voivodeships, in the area of 1.14% of arable land. Table 7 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in maize for grain in particular voivodeships.

Table 7. Agricultural drought in maize for grain

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie824554.8825.33
2.wielkopolskie226198.413.35
3.zachodniopomorskie11354.420.46
4.dolnośląskie16910.590.00

Agricultural drought affected also maize for silage. It was also recorded in 70 local districts (gminas) in Poland (2.83% of all local districts in the country), in 4 voivodeships, in the area of 1.14% of arable land. Table 8 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in maize for silage in particular voivodeships.

Table 8. Agricultural drought in maize for silage

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie824554.8825.33
2.wielkopolskie226198.413.35
3.zachodniopomorskie11354.420.46
4.dolnośląskie16910.590.00

Agricultural drought occurred also in fruit trees. It was recorded in 54 local districts (gminas) in Poland (2.18% of all local districts in the country), in 3 voivodeships, in the area of 0.79% of arable land. Table 9 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in fruit trees in particular voivodeships.

Table 9. Agricultural drought in fruit trees

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie824048.7818.55
2.wielkopolskie226114.872.08
3.zachodniopomorskie11332.650.19

Agricultural drought occurred also in ground vegetables. It was recorded in 39 local districts (gminas) in Poland (1.57% of all local districts in the country), in 3 voivodeships, in the area of 0.45% of arable land. Table 10 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in ground vegetables in particular voivodeships.

Table 10. Agricultural drought in ground vegetables

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie822935.3711.37
2.wielkopolskie22683.541.01
3.zachodniopomorskie11321.770.03

Agricultural drought affected also tobacco. It was recorded in 39 local districts (gminas) in Poland (1.57% of all local districts in the country), in 3 voivodeships, in the area of 0.58% of arable land. Table 11 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in tobacco in particular voivodeships.

Table 11. Agricultural drought in tobacco

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie822935.3715.20
2.wielkopolskie22683.541.14
3.zachodniopomorskie11321.770.03

May was cold this year. In the north of the country and in Sudety Foothills temperatures ranged from 10 to 12°C. In the south, the temperature reached 13°C, which was lower than the multiannual norm by about 1°C. In the rest of the country temperature ranged from 12 to 13°C. In the south-western regions of Poland the recorded temperature was lower than the multiannual norm (1981-2010) by more than 2°C and by 1 to 2°C in the rest of the western regions.

The first and second decade of June were very warm. In the majority of areas the air temperature ranged from 20 to 22°C (first decade), and 22 to 24°C or even exceeded 24°C (second decade). The lowest temperatures occurred in the northern and southern parts of the country, ranging from 19 to 20°C (first decade) and from 19 to 21°C (second decade).

In May precipitation in Poland was high in the majority of areas. However, in Slovincian Coast, in the northern part of Pomeranian Lake District and the southern part of Południowowielkopolska Lowland (Kutno Plain, Kłodawa Upland Plain, Łowicz-Błonie Plain, Łódź Hills, Łask Upland Plain, Grabów Basin, Złoczew Upland Plain and Szczerców Basin) precipitation was lower, ranging from 40 to 60 mm, which constituted about 70-100% of the norm. In the rest of the country precipitation ranged from 60 to 150 mm (which is 100-180% of the norm).

The first decade of June was mostly dry in the majority of areas, with precipitation below 5 mm or none. Only in the north-western part of the country precipitation was higher, ranging from 10 to 50 mm, and in the eastern regions, where it ranged from 10 to 30 mm. In the second decade, in the southern and central regions precipitation remained scarce, below 5 mm (or none) to 15 mm. Higher precipitation was recorded in the north of the country, where it ranged from 20 to more than 50 mm.

In the current sixty-day period a particularly severe water shortage occurred in the area of central Poland extending towards north-eastern regions of the country. In relation to the previous reporting period the number of voivodeships affected by agricultural drought has risen and amounts to 10 (9 in the previous reporting period). Agricultural drought occurs in 11 crop species or groups. In the south of the country still there is an excess of water available for crops.

Executive Director

Prof. dr hab. Wiesław Oleszek

Report prepared by:

Dr hab. Andrzej Doroszewski, prof. nadzw.

Dr hab. Rafał Pudełko

Dr Katarzyna Żyłowska

Dr Jan Jadczyszyn

Mgr Piotr Koza

Mgr Elżbieta Wróblewska

Mgr Agata Nowak