Communication report regarding the incidences of drought conditions in Poland

Year: 2019; period: 05 (1.V - 30.VI)

The Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation – State Research Institute, in accordance with an Act of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development has developed the climatic water balance values for all 2477 Polish local districts (gminas) and, based on soil categories, calculated the current risk of agricultural drought.

In the fifth reporting period, i.e. from May 1st to June 30th, 2019, IUNG-PIB stated agricultural drought conditions in Poland.

The average of Climatic Water Balance values, which are the basis for assessing the risk of agricultural drought, was negative and equalled -87 mm. It has decreased by 50 mm in comparison to the previous sixty-day reporting period (April 21st - June 20th).

The most severe water shortage in the period from May 1st to June 30th was recorded in Lubuskie Lake District, where it ranged from -230 to -239 mm. A considerable water deficit, from -160 mm to -230 mm was recorded in the northern part of Wielkopolskie Lake District, in Wielkopolska, Podlaska and Silesian Lowlands, in the southern part of Masovian Lowland, eastern part of Slovincian Coast, and in Polesie Lubelskie. In vast areas of the country water deficit ranged from -110 to -160 mm, whilst in the south of Poland and in Masurian Lake District water shortages were the lowest, above -110 mm.

Agricultural drought was stated in the following voivodeships:

  • Lubuskie,
  • Wielkopolskie,
  • Łódzkie,
  • Opolskie,
  • Podlaskie,
  • Mazowieckie,
  • Zachodniopomorskie,
  • Dolnośląskie,
  • Lubelskie,
  • Pomorskie,
  • Kujawsko-pomorskie,
  • Śląskie,
  • Świętokrzyskie,
  • Warmińsko-mazurskie.

Agricultural drought was stated in c, as follows:

  • Spring cereals,
  • Winter cereals,
  • Fruit shrubs,
  • Strawberries,
  • Rape and turnip rape,
  • Legumes,
  • Maize for grain,
  • Maize for silage,
  • Fruit trees,
  • Ground vegetables,
  • Tobacco,
  • Sugar beet,
  • Potato,
  • Hops.

In the fifth reporting period, from May 1st to June 30th, 2019, the highest risk of agricultural drought occurred for spring cereals. In Poland agricultural drought occurred in 1219 local districts (gminas), which constitute 49.21% of all the local districts in Poland. In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has increased by 670. Agricultural drought occurred in 14 voivodeships, in the area of 28.09% of arable land. Table 1 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in spring cereals in particular voivodeships.

Table 1. Agricultural drought in spring cereals

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1lubuskie8282100.0096.87
2wielkopolskie22622599.5680.47
3łódzkie17717598.8776.78
4opolskie716185.9220.35
5zachodniopomorskie1139079.6529.50
6podlaskie1188572.0325.88
7mazowieckie31418358.2821.68
8lubelskie21312458.2219.97
9dolnośląskie1698550.3024.38
10kujawsko-pomorskie1444934.035.02
11pomorskie1232318.709.38
12śląskie1672917.377.57
13świętokrzyskie10276.861.09
14warmińsko-mazurskie11610.860.06

In this reporting period agricultural drought occurred also in rape and turnip rape. It was recorded in 1218 local districts (gminas) in Poland (49.17% of all the local districts in the country), which is 1060 more than in the previous reporting period. Agricultural drought occurred in 14 voivodeships, in the area of 25.67% of arable land. Table 2 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in rape and turnip rape in particular voivodeships.

Table. 2. Agricultural drought in rape and turnip rape

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1lubuskie8282100.0089.21
2wielkopolskie22622599.5675.22
3łódzkie17717598.8770.30
4opolskie716185.9216.82
5zachodniopomorskie1139079.6525.13
6podlaskie1188572.0323.28
7mazowieckie31418358.2820.29
8lubelskie21312357.7516.80
9dolnośląskie1698550.3023.00
10kujawsko-pomorskie1444934.034.80
11pomorskie1232318.708.14
12śląskie1672917.377.25
13świętokrzyskie10276.861.09
14warmińsko-mazurskie11610.860.06

In this reporting period agricultural drought affected also fruit shrubs. It was recorded in 1075 local districts (gminas) in Poland (43.40% of all local districts in the country). Agricultural drought in fruit shrubs occurred in 13 voivodeships, in the area of 23.66% of arable land. In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has increased by 804. Table 3 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in fruit shrubs in particular voivodeships.

Table 3. Agricultural drought in fruit shrubs

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1lubuskie8282100.0094.25
2wielkopolskie22622499.1274.27
3łódzkie17717498.3168.02
4opolskie715780.2815.42
5zachodniopomorskie1137566.3721.86
6podlaskie1187261.0217.84
7lubelskie21310649.7713.44
8dolnośląskie1697946.7522.84
9mazowieckie31414546.1815.16
10pomorskie1232117.077.16
11kujawsko-pomorskie1442215.282.36
12śląskie1671710.184.03
13świętokrzyskie10210.980.06

In this reporting period agricultural drought occurred also in winter cereals. It was recorded in 961 local districts (gminas) in Poland (38.80% of all the local districts in the country), which is 639 more than in the previous reporting period. Agricultural drought occurred in 12 voivodeships, in the area of 19.86% of arable land. Table 4 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in winter cereals in particular voivodeships.

Table 4. Agricultural drought in winter cereals

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1lubuskie8282100.0086.38
2wielkopolskie22622097.3566.11
3łódzkie17716693.7962.75
4opolskie715070.429.71
5zachodniopomorskie1135952.2114.71
6podlaskie1185849.1513.66
7dolnośląskie1697443.7919.67
8lubelskie2139042.258.76
9mazowieckie31412038.2210.64
10pomorskie1231814.634.68
11kujawsko-pomorskie144149.721.16
12śląskie167105.992.50

Agricultural drought affected also maize for grain. It was recorded in 785 local districts (gminas) in Poland (31.69% of all local districts in the country), which is 715 more than in the previous reporting period. Agricultural drought occurred in 12 voivodeships, in the area of 13.05% of arable land. Table 5 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in maize for grain in particular voivodeships.

Table 5. Agricultural drought in maize for grain

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1lubuskie8282100.0078.23
2wielkopolskie22620490.2744.68
3łódzkie17715587.5743.42
4opolskie713143.664.49
5zachodniopomorskie1134741.596.73
6dolnośląskie1696437.8710.45
7podlaskie1183731.367.11
8mazowieckie3148727.715.10
9lubelskie2135525.825.14
10pomorskie1231613.012.31
11kujawsko-pomorskie14442.780.10
12śląskie16731.800.52

Agricultural drought affected also maize for silage. It was also recorded in 785 local districts (gminas) in Poland (31.69% of all local districts in the country), which is 715 more than in the previous reporting period. Agricultural drought occurred in 12 voivodeships, in the area of 13.05% of arable land. Table 6 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in maize for silage in particular voivodeships.

Table 6. Agricultural drought in maize for silage

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1lubuskie8282100.0078.23
2wielkopolskie22620490.2744.68
3łódzkie17715587.5743.42
4opolskie713143.664.49
5zachodniopomorskie1134741.596.73
6dolnośląskie1696437.8710.45
7podlaskie1183731.367.11
8mazowieckie3148727.715.10
9lubelskie2135525.825.14
10pomorskie1231613.012.31
11kujawsko-pomorskie14442.780.10
12śląskie16731.800.52

Agricultural drought occurred also in legumes. It was recorded in 785 local districts (gminas) in Poland (31.69% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has increased by 682. Drought occurred in 12 voivodeships, in the area of 15.80% of arable land. Table 7 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in legumes in particular voivodeships.

Table. 7. Agricultural drought in legumes

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1lubuskie8282100.0085.92
2wielkopolskie22620490.2754.14
3łódzkie17715587.5755.49
4opolskie713143.664.49
5zachodniopomorskie1134741.599.17
6dolnośląskie1696437.8714.45
7podlaskie1183731.367.11
8mazowieckie3148727.716.95
9lubelskie2135525.825.14
10pomorskie1231613.013.07
11kujawsko-pomorskie14442.780.10
12śląskie16731.800.52

Agricultural drought occurred also in strawberries. It was recorded in 733 local districts (gminas) in Poland (29.59% of all local districts in the country). The number of gminas affected by drought has increased by 535 in relation to the previous reporting period. Agricultural drought occurred in 12 voivodeships, in the area of 15.87% of arable land. Table 8 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in strawberries in particular voivodeships.

Table 8. Agricultural drought in strawberries

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1lubuskie8282100.0086.02
2wielkopolskie22620088.5055.90
3łódzkie17715487.0156.57
4zachodniopomorskie1134438.949.70
5dolnośląskie1696136.0915.69
6opolskie712535.213.38
7mazowieckie3147824.846.77
8podlaskie1182722.885.13
9lubelskie2134219.723.91
10pomorskie1231512.203.12
11kujawsko-pomorskie14432.080.01
12śląskie16721.200.23

Agricultural drought occurred in tobacco. It was recorded in 322 local districts (gminas) in Poland (13.00% of all local districts in the country) In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has increased by 283. Drought occurred in 7 voivodeships, in the area of 6.17% of arable land. Table 9 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in tobacco in particular voivodeships.

Table 9. Agricultural drought in tobacco

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1lubuskie827895.1273.74
2łódzkie1779251.9819.53
3wielkopolskie22610446.0221.22
4zachodniopomorskie1131412.392.67
5dolnośląskie1692011.831.72
6mazowieckie314123.820.48
7pomorskie12321.630.35

Agricultural drought occurred also in ground vegetables. It was recorded in 322 local districts (gminas) in Poland (13.00% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has increased by 283. Drought occurred in 7 voivodeships, in the area of 5.58% of arable land. Table 10 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in ground vegetables in particular voivodeships

Table 10. Agricultural drought in ground vegetables

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1lubuskie827895.1266.59
2łódzkie1779251.9819.49
3wielkopolskie22610446.0217.99
4zachodniopomorskie1131412.392.31
5dolnośląskie1692011.831.62
6mazowieckie314123.820.48
7pomorskie12321.630.35

Agricultural drought occurred also in fruit trees. It was recorded in 322 local districts (gminas) in Poland (13.00% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has increased by 268. Drought occurred in 7 voivodeships, in the area of 5.29% of arable land. Table 11 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in fruit trees in particular voivodeships.

Table 11. Agricultural drought in fruit trees

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1lubuskie827895.1264.08
2łódzkie1779251.9819.49
3wielkopolskie22610446.0216.16
4zachodniopomorskie1131412.392.07
5dolnośląskie1692011.831.54
6mazowieckie314123.820.48
7pomorskie12321.630.35

Agricultural drought affected also hops. It was recorded in 60 local districts (gminas) in Poland (2.42% of all local districts in the country), in 3 voivodeships, in the area of 0.68% of arable land. Table 12 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in hops in particular voivodeships.

Table 12. Agricultural drought in hops

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1lubuskie824959.7616.70
2wielkopolskie22693.981.61
3zachodniopomorskie11321.770.09

Agricultural drought occurred in potatoes. It was recorded in 41 local districts (gminas) in Poland (1.66% of all local districts in the country), in 2 voivodeships, in the area of 0.36% of arable land. Table 13 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in potatoes in particular voivodeships.

Table 13. Agricultural drought in potatoes

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1lubuskie823441,468,87
2wielkopolskie22673,100,85

Agricultural drought occurred in sugar beet as well. It was recorded in 7 local districts (gminas) in Poland (0.28% of all local districts in the country), in 2 voivodeships, in the area of 0.01% of arable land. Table 14 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in sugar beet in particular voivodeships.

Table 14. Agricultural drought in sugar beet

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1lubuskie8256.100.17
2wielkopolskie22620.880.01

May was cold this year. In the north of the country and in Sudety Foothills temperatures ranged from 10 to 12°C. In the south the temperature reached 13°C, which was lower than the multiannual norm by about 1°C. In the rest of the country temperature ranged from 12 to 13°C. In the south-western regions of Poland the recorded temperature was lower than the multiannual norm (1981-2010) by more than 2°C, and by 1 to 2°C in the rest of the western regions.

June was very warm. In the majority of areas the air temperature ranged from 20 to 22°C (first decade), and 22 to 24°C or even exceeded 24°C (second and third decade). The lowest temperatures occurred in the northern and southern parts of the country, ranging from 19 to 20°C (first decade) and from 19 to 21°C (second and third decade).

In May precipitation in Poland was high in the majority of areas. However, in Slovincian Coast, in the northern part of Pomeranian Lake District and the southern part of Południowowielkopolska Lowland (Kutno Plain, Kłodawa Upland Plain, Łowicz-Błonie Plain, Łódź Hills, Łask Upland Plain, Grabów Basin, Złoczew Upland Plain and Szczerców Basin) precipitation was lower, ranging from 40 to 60 mm, which constituted about 70-100% of the norm. In the rest of the country precipitation ranged from 60 to 150 mm (which is 100-180% of the norm).

The first decade of June was mostly dry in the majority of areas, with precipitation below 5 mm or none. Only in the north-western part of the country precipitation was higher, ranging from 10 to 50 mm, and in the eastern regions, where it ranged from 10 to 30 mm. In the second and third decade, in the southern and central regions precipitation remained scarce, below 5 mm (or none) to 15 mm. Higher precipitation was recorded in the north of the Poland (in the second decade) and occasionally in the south of the country, where it ranged from 20 to more than 50 mm.

In the current sixty-day reporting period, as in the previous one, a particularly severe water shortage occurred in the area of central Poland becoming relatively lower towards north-eastern regions of the country. The average water deficit for crops has increased by 50 mm in relation to the previous reporting period, including new areas. The number of voivodeships affected by agricultural drought has also risen and amounts to 14 (10 in the previous reporting period). The number of local districts affected by drought now amounts to 1219 (49.21% of all local districts in Poland), which is 670 more than in the previous reporting period. Agricultural drought currently occurs in 11 all the monitored crop species (or groups) in the area of 28.09% of arable land.

Executive Director

Prof. dr. hab. Wiesław Oleszek

Report prepared by:

Dr hab. Andrzej Doroszewski, prof. nadzw.

Dr hab. Rafał Pudełko

Dr Katarzyna Żyłowska

Dr Jan Jadczyszyn

Mgr Piotr Koza

Mgr Elżbieta Wróblewska

Mgr Agata Nowak