Communication report regarding the incidences of drought conditions in Poland

Year: 2018; period: 05 (1.V - 30.VI)

The Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation – State Research Institute, in accordance with an Act of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development has developed the climatic water balance values for all 2478 Polish local districts (gminas) and, on the basis of soil categories, calculated the current risk of agricultural drought for the following crops: winter and spring cereals, maize for grain and maize for silage, rape and turnip rape, potato, sugar beet, hops, tobacco, ground vegetables, fruit shrubs and trees, strawberries and legumes (fabacea).

In the fifth reporting period, i.e. from May 1st to June 30th 2018, IUNG-PIB stated agricultural drought conditions in Poland.

The mean of Climatic Water Balance values, which are the basis for assessing the risk of agricultural drought, was negative and reached -174.5 mm. In relation to the previous reporting period it has increased by 16 mm.

The lowest CWB values in this sixty-day reporting period were recorded in Poznań and the surrounding area, similarly to the previous reporting period, ranging from -250 to -259 mm. A very high water deficiency ranging from -240 to -249 mm was also recorded in the Lowlands: Wielkopolska, Szczecińska, and in Żarnowiecka Upland. Considerable water shortage occurred also in Kujawy and eastern part of Masurian Lake Dirstrict, where it ranged from -200 to -239 mm. Slightly lower values, but exceeding -160 mm were recorded to the north of the Polish Uplands, but the affected area moved more towards the north of the country in relation to the previous reporting period. In the southern regions of Poland water deficiency was much lower, from -50 to -100 mm.

In the current reporting period drought occurs in all the monitored crops:

  • Spring cereals,
  • Winter cereals,
  • Legumes (fabacea),
  • Fruit shrubs,
  • Ground vegetables,
  • Strawberries,
  • Tobacco,
  • Fruit trees,
  • Rape and turnip rape,
  • Maize for grain,
  • Maize for silage,
  • Hops,
  • Potato,
  • Sugar beet

The number of all local districts (gminas) in Poland at risk of agricultural drought (%) is presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Number of local districts (gminas) at risk of agricultural drought and the share of the area at risk in the country (%)

No.Crop Number of local districts (gminas) at riskShare of local districts (gminas) at risk in Poland [%]
1.Spring cereals143757.99
2.Winter cereals122749.52
3.Legumes (fabacea)122749.52
4.Fruit shrubs115346.53
5.Rape and turnip rape106342.90
6.Strawberries100240.44
7.Tobacco 86634.95
8.Ground vegetables 82633.33
9.Fruit trees 57423.16
10.Maize for grain 42417.11
11.Maize for silage 42417.11
12.Hops 204 8.23
13.Potato 108 4.36
14.Sugar beet 21 0.85

The potential area at risk of agricultural drought in Poland is shown in Table 2.

Table 2. The area at risk of agricultural drought according to crops

No.CropThe arable area at risk of agricultural drought [%]
1.Spring cereals40.28
2.Legumes (fabacea)29.11
3.Winter cereals28.95
4.Fruit shrubs28.60
5.Strawberries22.40
6.Tobacco20.76
7.Rape and turnip rape17.82
8.Ground vegetables16.31
9.Fruit trees 9.80
10.Maize for silage 6.57
11.Maize for grain 6.56
12.Hops 2.00
13.Potato 0.77
14.Sugar beet 0.04

In comparison to the previous reporting period, there was a change in the number of local districts (gminas) affected by agricultural drought - presented in Table 3.

Table 3. Changes in the number of gminas affected by agricultural drought in relation to the previous sixty-day period (%).

No.CropPercentage
1.Hops +4.64
2.Potato +2.67
3.Sugar beet +0.29
4.Rape and turnip rape -5.81
5.Maize for grain -6.78
6.Maize for silage -6.78
7.Spring cereals-24.98
8.Tobacco-25.42
9.Legumes (fabacea)-26.75
10.Fruit shrubs-27.64
11.Winter cereals-28.08
12.Fruit trees-28.82
13.Ground vegetables-30.83
14.Strawberries-31.03

In comparison to the previous reporting period, there was also a change in the area of arable land affected by agricultural drought – presented in Table 4.

Table 4. Changes in the area of arable land affected by agricultural drought (%).

No.CropPercentage
1.Hops +1.31
2.Rape and turnip rape +1.05
3.Potato +0.49
4.Sugar beet -0.10
5.Maize for grain -1.35
6.Maize for silage -1.35
7.Fruit trees-11.53
8.Tobacco-13.00
9.Ground vegetables-16.46
10.Legumes (fabacea)-18.10
11.Fruit shrubs-20.15
12.Winter cereals-20.41
13.Spring cereals-22.86
14.Strawberries-23.27

In the fifth reporting period, from May 1st to June 30th 2018, the highest risk of agricultural drought occurred for spring cereals. In Poland agricultural drought in spring cereals occurred in 13 voivodeships, 4 of them recorded drought in all the local districts (gminas). Drought occurred in 1437 local districts (gminas), i.e. 57.99% of all the local districts in Poland, in the area of 40.28 % of arable land.

Particularly large areas affected by drought were in the following voivodeships:

  • pomorskie,
  • zachodniopomorskie,
  • lubuskie,
  • podlaskie,
  • kujawsko-pomorskie,
  • wielkopolskie

(67.07 to 81.89% of arable land in these voivodeships).

Detailed data on drought occurrence in spring cereals in particular voivodeships are presented in table 5.

Table 5. Agricultural drought in spring cereals

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.kujawsko-pomorskie144144100.0067.11
2.lubuskie8282100.0076.61
3.podlaskie118118100.0074.14
4.zachodniopomorskie114114100.0080.41
5.pomorskie12312097.5681.89
6.wielkopolskie22621494.6967.07
7.warmińsko-mazurskie11610993.9741.19
8.mazowieckie31428189.4948.43
9.lubelskie21311553.9923.92
10.łódzkie1777944.6315.05
11.dolnośląskie1695532.548.93
12.świętokrzyskie10243.920.00
13.podkarpackie16021.250.01
14.małopolskie18200.000.00
15.opolskie7100.000.00
16.śląskie16700.000.00

A high risk of agricultural drought also occurred for winter cereals, recorded in 11 voivodeships, in 2 of them reaching 100% of the local districts (gminas). In Poland agricultural drought in winter cereals occurred in 1227 local districts (gminas), i.e. 49.52% of all local districts in the country, in the area of 28.95% of arable land.

Particularly large areas affected by drought were in the following voivodeships:

  • zachodniopomorskie
  • pomorskie,
  • lubuskie,
  • podlaskie,
  • wielkopolskie,

(51.33 to 68.72% of arable land in these voivodeships).

Detailed data on drought occurrence in winter cereals in particular voivodeships are presented in table 6.

Table 6. Agricultural drought in winter cereals

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.podlaskie118118100.0057.32
2.zachodniopomorskie114114100.0068.72
3.kujawsko-pomorskie14414197.9248.58
4.lubuskie828097.5660.08
5.pomorskie12312097.5667.13
6.warmińsko-mazurskie11610187.0723.64
7.wielkopolskie22617778.3251.33
8.mazowieckie31424277.0729.12
9.lubelskie2137736.1516.57
10.dolnośląskie1692917.164.10
11.łódzkie1772815.824.14
12.małopolskie18200.000.00
13.opolskie7100.000.00
14.podkarpackie16000.000.00
15.śląskie16700.000.00
16.świętokrzyskie10200.000.00

A very high risk of agricultural drought also occurred for legumes (fabacea), recorded in 11 voivodeships, in 2 of them reaching 100% of the local districts (gminas). In Poland agricultural drought in legumes occurred in 1890 local districts (gminas), i.e. 76.27% of all local districts in the country, in the area of 47.21% of arable land.

Particularly large areas affected by drought were in the following voivodeships:

  • zachodniopomorskie,
  • pomorskie,
  • lubuskie,
  • podlaskie,
  • wielkopolskie,

(51.50 to 68.91% of arable land in these voivodeships).

Detailed data on drought occurrence in legumes (fabacea) in particular voivodeships are presented in table 7.

Table 7. Agricultural drought in legumes (fabacea)

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.podlaskie118118100.0058.35
2.zachodniopomorskie114114100.0068.91
3.kujawsko-pomorskie14414197.9248.73
4.lubuskie828097.5660.08
5.pomorskie12312097.5667.44
6.warmińsko-mazurskie11610187.0724.31
7.wielkopolskie22617778.3251.50
8.mazowieckie31424277.0729.12
9.lubelskie2137736.1516.57
10.dolnośląskie1692917.164.10
11.łódzkie1772815.824.14
12.małopolskie18200.000.00
13.opolskie7100.000.00
14.podkarpackie16000.000.00
15.śląskie16700.000.00
16.świętokrzyskie10200.000.00

There was also a high risk of agricultural drought for fruit shrubs, recorded in 11 voivodeships, in 2 of them reaching 100% of the local districts (gminas). In Poland agricultural drought in fruit shrubs occurred in 1153 local districts (gminas), i.e. 46.53% of all local districts in the country, in the area of 28.60% of arable land.

Particularly large areas affected by drought were in the following voivodeships:

  • Zachodniopomorskie
  • Pomorskie,
  • Podlaskie,
  • Lubuskie,
  • Wielkopolskie,

(50.13 to 69.50% of arable land in these voivodeships).

Detailed data on drought occurrence in fruit shrubs in particular voivodeships are presented in table 8.

Table 8. Agricultural drought in fruit shrubs

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.podlaskie118118100.0061.25
2.zachodniopomorskie114114100.0069.77
3.pomorskie12312097.5669.50
4.lubuskie827996.3458.50
5.kujawsko-pomorskie14413795.1449.03
6.warmińsko-mazurskie1169884.4825.42
7.mazowieckie31422671.9725.86
8.wielkopolskie22615367.7050.13
9.lubelskie2136731.4615.29
10.dolnośląskie1692213.022.92
11.łódzkie1771910.732.08
12.małopolskie18200.000.00
13.opolskie7100.000.00
14.podkarpackie16000.000.00
15.śląskie16700.000.00
16.świętokrzyskie10200.000.00

In this reporting period drought occurred again in rape and turnip rape, recorded in 11 voivodeships. In Poland agricultural drought in rape and turnip rape occurred in 1063 local districts (gminas), i.e. 42.90% of all local districts in the country, in the area of 17.82% of arable land.

In zachodniopomorskie and podlaskie voivodeships drought occurred in all the local districts.

The highest percentage of soils affected by drought was recorded in zachodniopomorskie and pomorskie voivodeships.

Detailed data on drought occurrence in rape and turnip rape in particular voivodeships are presented in table 9.

Table 9. Agricultural drought in rape and turnip rape

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.podlaskie118118100.0026.73
2.zachodniopomorskie114114100.0047.44
3.pomorskie12311996.7542.45
4.lubuskie827895.1229.58
5.kujawsko-pomorskie14413090.2838.04
6.warmińsko-mazurskie1169077.5914.88
7.wielkopolskie22613961.5035.56
8.mazowieckie31419261.1515.10
9.lubelskie2136128.649.03
10.dolnośląskie1691710.061.54
11.łódzkie17752.820.43
12.małopolskie18200.000.00
13.opolskie7100.000.00
14.podkarpackie16000.000.00
15.śląskie16700.000.00
16.świętokrzyskie10200.000.00

In this reporting period a high risk of drought was still recorded for strawberries, in 11 voivodeships, in 2 of them reaching 100% of local districts (gminas). In Poland agricultural drought in strawberries occurred in 1002 local districts (gminas), i.e. 40.44% of all local districts in the country, in the area of 22.40% of arable land.

Particularly large areas affected by drought were in the following voivodeships:

  • Pomorskie,
  • Zachodniopomorskie
  • Podlaskie

(52.35 to 63.22% of arable land in these voivodeships).

Detailed data on drought occurrence in strawberries in particular voivodeships are presented in table 10.

Table 10. Agricultural drought in strawberries

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.podlaskie118118100.0052.35
2.zachodniopomorskie114114100.0055.88
3.pomorskie12312097.5663.22
4.lubuskie827490.2441.25
5.kujawsko-pomorskie14412586.8140.61
6.warmińsko-mazurskie1168674.1416.67
7.wielkopolskie22613459.2943.88
8.mazowieckie31416452.2314.45
9.lubelskie2135224.4110.89
10.dolnośląskie169148.280.44
11.łódzkie17710.560.12
12.małopolskie18200.000.00
13.opolskie7100.000.00
14.podkarpackie16000.000.00
15.śląskie16700.000.00
16.świętokrzyskie10200.000.00

In the current reporting period a high risk of drought was also recorded for tobacco, in 10 voivodeships, in zachodniopomorskie reaching 100% of local districts (gminas). In Poland agricultural drought in tobacco occurred in 866 local districts (gminas), i.e. 34.95% of all local districts in the country, in the area of 20.76% of arable land.

Particularly large areas affected by drought were in the following voivodeships:

  • Pomorskie,
  • Zachodniopomorskie
  • Podlaskie

(53.43 to 63.94% of arable land in these voivodeships).

Detailed data on drought occurrence in tobacco in particular voivodeships are presented in table 11.

Table 11. Agricultural drought in tobacco

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.zachodniopomorskie114114100.0053.69
2.pomorskie12312097.5663.94
3.podlaskie11810891.5353.43
4.kujawsko-pomorskie14411680.5638.76
5.lubuskie826376.8330.63
6.warmińsko-mazurskie1167161.2115.96
7.wielkopolskie22611952.6542.62
8.mazowieckie31411235.678.52
9.lubelskie2134219.728.57
10.dolnośląskie16910.590.00
11.łódzkie17700.000.00
12.małopolskie18200.000.00
13.opolskie7100.000.00
14.podkarpackie16000.000.00
15.śląskie16700.000.00
16.świętokrzyskie10200.000.00

In this reporting period a very high risk of drought was recorded for ground vegetables, it occurred in 9 voivodeships. In Poland agricultural drought in ground vegetables occurred in 826 local districts (gminas), i.e. 33.33% of all local districts in the country, in the area of 16.31% of arable land.

Particularly large areas affected by drought in ground vegetables were in pomorskie: 55.60% of arable land in this voivodeship.

Detailed data on drought occurrence in ground vegetables in particular voivodeships are presented in table 12.

Table 12. Agricultural drought in ground vegetables

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.zachodniopomorskie11411298.2540.44
2.pomorskie12312097.5655.60
3.podlaskie11810689.8344.05
4.kujawsko-pomorskie14411378.4729.55
5.lubuskie825870.7324.05
6.warmińsko-mazurskie1166556.039.73
7.wielkopolskie22611450.4435.51
8.mazowieckie31410031.855.90
9.lubelskie2133817.845.25
10.dolnośląskie16900.000.00
11.łódzkie17700.000.00
12.małopolskie18200.000.00
13.opolskie7100.000.00
14.podkarpackie16000.000.00
15.śląskie16700.000.00
16.świętokrzyskie10200.000.00

In this reporting period there was also a high risk of drought in fruit trees. It occurred in 9 voivodeships in 574 local districts (gminas), i.e. 23.16% of all local districts in the country, in the area of 9.80% of arable land.

Detailed data on drought occurrence in fruit trees in particular voivodeships are presented in table 13.

Table 13. Agricultural drought in fruit trees

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.pomorskie12311895.9332.23
2.zachodniopomorskie1148978.0721.20
3.podlaskie1188067.8032.28
4.kujawsko-pomorskie1448559.0314.84
5.wielkopolskie22610144.6928.45
6.lubuskie823239.027.18
7.warmińsko-mazurskie1163631.036.03
8.lubelskie213219.862.78
9.mazowieckie314123.820.20
10.dolnośląskie16900.000.00
11.łódzkie17700.000.00
12.małopolskie18200.000.00
13.opolskie7100.000.00
14.podkarpackie16000.000.00
15.śląskie16700.000.00
16.świętokrzyskie10200.000.00

In the current reporting period drought occurred also in maize for grain. It was recorded in 8 voivodeships. In Poland agricultural drought in maize for grain occurred in 424 local districts (gminas), i.e. 17.11% of all local districts in the country, in the area of 6.56% of arable land.

Detailed data on drought occurrence in maize for grain in particular voivodeships are presented in table 14.

Table 14. Agricultural drought in maize for grain

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.pomorskie1239879.6727.15
2.podlaskie1187059.3213.10
3.zachodniopomorskie1146758.7715.32
4.kujawsko-pomorskie1446142.3615.62
5.wielkopolskie2269140.2720.64
6.warmińsko-mazurskie1162420.692.19
7.lubuskie82910.980.78
8.lubelskie21341.880.12
9.dolnośląskie16900.000.00
10.łódzkie17700.000.00
11.małopolskie18200.000.00
12.mazowieckie31400.000.00
13.opolskie7100.000.00
14.podkarpackie16000.000.00
15.śląskie16700.000.00
16.świętokrzyskie10200.000.00

In the current reporting period drought occurred in maize for silage as well. It was also recorded in 8 voivodeships. In Poland agricultural drought in maize for silage occurred in 424 local districts (gminas), i.e. 17.11% of all local districts in the country, in the area of 6.57% of arable land.

Detailed data on drought occurrence in maize for silage in particular voivodeships are presented in table 15.

Table 15. Agricultural drought in maize for silage

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.pomorskie1239879.6727.23
2.podlaskie1187059.3213.10
3.zachodniopomorskie1146758.7715.43
4.kujawsko-pomorskie1446142.3615.62
5.wielkopolskie2269140.2720.67
6.warmińsko-mazurskie1162420.692.19
7.lubuskie82910.980.78
8.lubelskie21341.880.12
9.dolnośląskie16900.000.00
10.łódzkie17700.000.00
11.małopolskie18200.000.00
12.mazowieckie31400.000.00
13.opolskie7100.000.00
14.podkarpackie16000.000.00
15.śląskie16700.000.00
16.świętokrzyskie10200.000.00

In this reporting period drought occurred also in hops. It was recorded in 7 voivodeships. In Poland agricultural drought in hops occurred in 204 local districts (gminas), i.e. 8.23% of all local districts in the country, in the area of 2.00% of arable land.

Detailed data on drought occurrence in hops in particular voivodeships are presented in table 16.

Table 16. Agricultural drought in hops

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.pomorskie1234032.524.59
2.podlaskie1183832.206.89
3.wielkopolskie2267231.868.60
4.zachodniopomorskie1143026.324.31
5.warmińsko-mazurskie1161210.341.18
6.kujawsko-pomorskie144117.641.50
7.lubuskie8211.220.02
8.dolnośląskie16900.000.00
9.lubelskie21300.000.00
10.łódzkie17700.000.00
11.małopolskie18200.000.00
12.mazowieckie31400.000.00
13.opolskie7100.000.00
14.podkarpackie16000.000.00
15.śląskie16700.000.00
16.świętokrzyskie10200.000.00

Drought affected also potatoes. It was recorded in 6 voivodeships. In Poland agricultural drought in potatoes occurred in 108 local districts (gminas), i.e. 4.36% of all local districts in the country, in the area of 0.77% of arable land.

Detailed data on drought occurrence in potatoes in particular voivodeships are presented in table 17.

Table 17. Agricultural drought in potatoes

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.wielkopolskie2265926.115.14
2.zachodniopomorskie1142017.542.08
3.pomorskie1231915.451.21
4.kujawsko-pomorskie14464.170.43
5.warmińsko-mazurskie11621.720.09
6.podlaskie11821.690.01
7.dolnośląskie16900.000.00
8.lubelskie21300.000.00
9.lubuskie8200.000.00
10.łódzkie17700.000.00
11.małopolskie18200.000.00
12.mazowieckie31400.000.00
13.opolskie7100.000.00
14.podkarpackie16000.000.00
15.śląskie16700.000.00
16.świętokrzyskie10200.000.00

In this reporting period drought occurred in sugar beet. It was recorded in 3 voivodeships. In Poland agricultural drought in sugar beet occurred in 21 local districts (gminas), i.e. 0.85% of all local districts in the country, in the area of 0.04% of arable land.

Detailed data on drought occurrence in sugar beet in particular voivodeships are presented in table 18.

Table 18. Agricultural drought in sugar beet

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.pomorskie12397.320.37
2.zachodniopomorskie11454.390.15
3.wielkopolskie22673.100.08
4.dolnośląskie16900.000.00
5.kujawsko-pomorskie14400.000.00
6.lubelskie21300.000.00
7.lubuskie8200.000.00
8.łódzkie17700.000.00
9.małopolskie18200.000.00
10.mazowieckie31400.000.00
11.opolskie7100.000.00
12.podkarpackie16000.000.00
13.podlaskie11800.000.00
14.śląskie16700.000.00
15.świętokrzyskie10200.000.00
16.warmińsko-mazurskie11600.000.00

May was particularly warm this year. In Wielkopolskie and Mazurskie Lake Districts the air temperature exceeded the norm by 4°C, and in the rest of the country by 3-4°C. The highest temperatures were recorded in the centre of Poland, ranging from 17 to 18°C, and in the vast majority of the country between 16 and 17°C. In the north the temperatures were the lowest, from 13 to 16°C.

The first decade of June was warm as well. In the western part of the country temperatures reached from 20 to even 20.5°C. In the rest of the areas temperatures were also considerably high, between 17 - 20.5°C. The second decade of June was similar, temperatures reached 19 to 20.5°C. Only in the north of the country it was slightly colder, 16.5 to 19°C.

The third decade of the month was much colder in all the areas. In the majority of the country temperatures ranged from 15 to 16°C. Only in the north-eastern and north-western regions it was warmer, from 16.5 to 17.5 C.

In May precipitation varied significantly, from very scarce (20-30 mm) in Lubusz Land, Greater Poland Lake District and Podlasie, to very intense (60-100 mm) rainfalls in Lesser Poland Upland. In the vast majority of the country precipitation was 10-50% lower than the norm. In Lubusz Land and the central part of Pomeranian Lake District precipitation in May constituted 30-50% of the norm, while in the Lesser Poland Upland it was even 90-110%.

In the first decade of June precipitation varied across the country, from very low in the east of Poland (below 5 to 10 mm) to considerably high in the west and south (10 to more than 50 mm). In the second decade precipitation was very scarce (up to 5 mm) or there was even a complete lack of rainfall in the north of the country. In the south of Poland precipitation ranged from 5 to 50 mm (especially in the south-eastern part of the country).

Third decade of June was more abundant in precipitation, which ranged from 15 to 50 mm or even more than 50 mm in the south. Only in the north-western regions of Poland it was lower, between 5 - 15 mm, and there were still areas with no precipitation in that part of the country.

May and the two decades of June were characterised by particularly high temperatures and insolation (especially in the north of the country). The values of the abovementioned meteorological factors were considerably higher than multiannual norms. At the same time precipitation in this period was considerably low. The third decade of June, however, was colder and precipitation was more intense in the majority of the country, which caused the increase of the mean of Climatic Water Balance values. It also contributed to the growing water deficit for many species and groups of plants. During this reporting period water shortage caused agricultural drought in the following crops: hops, potato and sugar beet. It caused also the increase of the area and number of local districts affected by drought.

Executive Director

Prof. dr hab. Wiesław Aleksander Oleszek

Report prepared by:

Dr hab. Andrzej Doroszewski, prof. nadaw.

Dr hab. Rafał Pudełko

Dr Katarzyna Żyłowska

Mgr Piotr Koza

Mgr Elżbieta Wróblewska