Communication report regarding the incidences of drought conditions in Poland

Year: 2019; period: 06 (11.V - 10.VII)

The Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation – State Research Institute, in accordance with an Act of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development has developed the climatic water balance values for all 2477 Polish local districts (gminas) and, based on soil categories, calculated the current risk of agricultural drought.

In the sixth reporting period, i.e. from May 11th to July 10th, 2019, IUNG-PIB stated agricultural drought conditions in Poland.

The average of Climatic Water Balance values, which are the basis for assessing the risk of agricultural drought, was negative and equalled -94 mm. It has decreased by 8 mm in comparison to the previous sixty-day reporting period (May 1st - June 30th).

The largest water deficit in the period from May 11th to July 10th (as in the previous reporting period) was recorded in Lubuskie Lake District. The Climatic Water Balance values in this area ranged from -240 to -259 mm. In the majority of lubuskie voivodeship and in the northern part of wielkopolskie voivodeship water deficit exceeded -200 mm. A considerable water deficit, from -160 mm to -200 mm, was also recorded in the northern part of Wielkopolskie Lake District, in Wielkopolska, Podlaska and Silesian Lowlands, in the southern part of Masovian Lowland, and in Polesie Lubelskie. In vast areas of the country water deficit ranged from -110 to -20 mm, whilst in the south of Poland and in Masurian Lake District water shortages were the lowest, reaching above -110 mm.

Agricultural drought was stated in the following voivodeships:

  • Lubuskie,
  • Wielkopolskie,
  • Łódzkie,
  • Opolskie,
  • Podlaskie,
  • Mazowieckie,
  • Zachodniopomorskie,
  • Dolnośląskie,
  • Lubelskie,
  • Pomorskie,
  • Kujawsko-pomorskie,
  • Śląskie,
  • Świętokrzyskie,
  • Podkarpackie.

Agricultural drought was stated in all the monitored crops, as follows:

  • Spring cereals,
  • Winter cereals,
  • Fruit shrubs,
  • Strawberries,
  • Rape and turnip rape,
  • Legumes,
  • Maize for grain,
  • Maize for silage,
  • Fruit trees,
  • Ground vegetables,
  • Tobacco,
  • Sugar beet,
  • Potato,
  • Hops.

In the sixth reporting period, from May 11th to July 10th, 2019, the highest risk of agricultural drought occurred for rape and turnip rape. Agricultural drought in this crop occurred in 1333 local districts (gminas), which constitute 53.82% of all the local districts in Poland. In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has increased by 115. Agricultural drought occurred in 14 voivodeships, in the area of 30.13% of arable land. Table 1 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in rape and turnip rape in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 1. Agricultural drought in rape and turnip rape

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie8282100.0097.13
2.łódzkie177177100.0073.79
3.wielkopolskie226226100.0089.17
4.opolskie716895.7732.58
5.zachodniopomorskie1139180.5338.19
6.lubelskie21316577.4626.47
7.dolnośląskie16910763.3128.43
8.mazowieckie31419562.1021.49
9.śląskie1677746.1122.25
10.kujawsko-pomorskie1446142.369.07
11.podlaskie1184033.9010.56
12.świętokrzyskie1023130.394.55
13.pomorskie12364.880.59
14.podkarpackie16074.380.48

In this reporting period agricultural drought occurred also in spring cereals. It was recorded in 947 local districts (gminas) in Poland (38.23% of all the local districts in the country). Agricultural drought occurred in 12 voivodeships, in the area of 21.73% of arable land. Table 2 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in spring cereals in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 2. Agricultural drought in spring cereals

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie8282100.0095.31
2.wielkopolskie226226100.0076.65
3.łódzkie17716894.9263.68
4.opolskie716185.9226.21
5.zachodniopomorskie1136254.8723.90
6.lubelskie21311252.589.96
7.dolnośląskie1698852.0726.51
8.mazowieckie3148226.116.35
9.śląskie1673822.759.13
10.kujawsko-pomorskie1441711.811.78
11.podlaskie11875.931.53
12.świętokrzyskie10243.920.18

In this reporting period agricultural drought affected also fruit shrubs. It was recorded in 924 local districts (gminas) in Poland (37.30% of all local districts in the country). Agricultural drought in fruit shrubs occurred in 12 voivodeships, in the area of 21.65% of arable land. Table 3 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in fruit shrubs in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 3. Agricultural drought in fruit shrubs

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie8282100.0095.18
2.wielkopolskie22622499.1276.81
3.łódzkie17716794.3563.83
4.opolskie716185.9227.21
5.zachodniopomorskie1136153.9824.03
6.dolnośląskie1698650.8925.89
7.lubelskie21310649.779.32
8.mazowieckie3147523.896.24
9.śląskie1673722.169.15
10.kujawsko-pomorskie1441510.421.48
11.podlaskie11865.081.39
12.świętokrzyskie10243.920.14

Agricultural drought affected also maize for grain. It was recorded in 877 local districts (gminas) in Poland (35.41% of all local districts in the country), which is 92 more than in the previous reporting period. Agricultural drought occurred in 12 voivodeships, in the area of 16.6% of arable land. Table 4 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in maize for grain in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 4. Agricultural drought in maize for grain

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie8282100.0086.42
2.wielkopolskie22622499.1262.60
3.łódzkie17716492.6646.31
4.opolskie716084.5112.90
5.zachodniopomorskie1135851.3311.80
6.dolnośląskie1698248.5221.15
7.lubelskie2139243.198.32
8.śląskie1673319.766.88
9.mazowieckie3146219.753.71
10.kujawsko-pomorskie144139.030.84
11.podlaskie11854.241.13
12.świętokrzyskie10221.960.06

Agricultural drought affected also maize for silage. It was also recorded in 877 local districts (gminas) in Poland (35.41% of all local districts in the country), which is 92 more than in the previous reporting period. Agricultural drought occurred in 12 voivodeships, in the area of 16.6% of arable land. Table 5 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in maize for silage in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 5. Agricultural drought in maize for silage

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie8282100.0086.42
2.wielkopolskie22622499.1262.60
3.łódzkie17716492.6646.31
4.opolskie716084.5112.90
5.zachodniopomorskie1135851.3311.80
6.dolnośląskie1698248.5221.15
7.lubelskie2139243.198.32
8.śląskie1673319.766.88
9.mazowieckie3146219.753.71
10.kujawsko-pomorskie144139.030.84
11.podlaskie11854.241.13
12.świętokrzyskie10221.960.06

Agricultural drought occurred also in legumes. It was recorded in 737 local districts (gminas) in Poland (29.75% of all local districts in the country). Drought occurred in 11 voivodeships, in the area of 16.51% of arable land. Table 6 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in legumes in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 6. Agricultural drought in legumes

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie8282100.0091.37
2.wielkopolskie22621695.5865.51
3.łódzkie17715285.8849.47
4.opolskie715881.6914.03
5.dolnośląskie1697745.5622.94
6.zachodniopomorskie1134842.4811.63
7.lubelskie2134621.602.14
8.śląskie1672213.174.77
9.mazowieckie3143410.832.59
10.podlaskie11810.850.01
11.kujawsko-pomorskie14410.690.00

In this reporting period agricultural drought occurred also in winter cereals. It was recorded in 700 local districts (gminas) in Poland (28.26% of all the local districts in the country). Agricultural drought occurred in 9 voivodeships, in the area of 15.50% of arable land. Table 7 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in winter cereals in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 7. Agricultural drought in winter cereals

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie8282100.0086.21
2.wielkopolskie22621293.8163.02
3.łódzkie17715285.8846.14
4.opolskie715678.8713.11
5.dolnośląskie1697644.9721.87
6.zachodniopomorskie1134842.4810.17
7.lubelskie2132310.800.79
8.śląskie1671810.784.26
9.mazowieckie3143310.512.31

Agricultural drought occurred also in strawberries. It was recorded in 523 local districts (gminas) in Poland (21.11% of all local districts in the country). Agricultural drought in strawberries occurred in 8 voivodeships, in the area of 10.96% of arable land. Table 8 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in strawberries in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 8. Agricultural drought in strawberries

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie828198.7883.40
2.wielkopolskie22618380.9746.55
3.łódzkie17712671.1927.83
4.dolnośląskie1696538.4616.55
5.opolskie712535.212.95
6.zachodniopomorskie1132925.665.38
7.mazowieckie314134.140.49
8.śląskie16710.600.02

Agricultural drought occurred also in ground vegetables. It was recorded in 426 local districts (gminas) in Poland (17.20% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has increased by 104. Drought occurred in 7 voivodeships, in the area of 8.01% of arable land. Table 9 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in ground vegetables in particular voivodeships

Tab. 9. Agricultural drought in ground vegetables

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie828097.5676.60
2.wielkopolskie22616271.6832.51
3.łódzkie1779453.1118.03
4.dolnośląskie1696035.5011.47
5.zachodniopomorskie1131815.933.45
6.opolskie711014.081.13
7.mazowieckie31420.640.01

Agricultural drought occurred in tobacco. It was recorded in 412 local districts (gminas) in Poland (16.63% of all local districts in the country) In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has increased by 90. Drought occurred in 7 voivodeships, in the area of 8.82% of arable land. Table 10 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in tobacco in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 10. Agricultural drought tobacco

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie828097.5685.56
2.wielkopolskie22615970.3536.76
3.łódzkie1778950.2817.18
4.dolnośląskie1695834.3213.49
5.zachodniopomorskie1131715.043.78
6.opolskie71811.270.96
7.mazowieckie31410.320.00

Agricultural drought was also recorded in fruit trees. It occurred in 303 local districts (gminas) in Poland (12.23% of all local districts in the country. Drought occurred in 6 voivodeships, in the area of 4.90% of arable land. Table 11 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in fruit trees in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 11. Agricultural drought in fruit trees

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie828097.5667.19
2.wielkopolskie22612053.1018.83
3.dolnośląskie1694828.406.22
4.łódzkie1774123.165.03
5.zachodniopomorskie113119.731.88
6.opolskie7134.230.22

Agricultural drought affected also hops. It was recorded in 111 local districts (gminas) in Poland (4.48% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has increased by 51. Drought in hops occurred in 4 voivodeships, in the area of 2.13% of arable land. Table 12 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in hops in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 12. Agricultural drought in hops

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie827186.5953.87
2.wielkopolskie2262511.064.20
3.dolnośląskie16995.330.42
4.zachodniopomorskie11365.310.69

Agricultural drought occurred in potatoes. It was recorded in 91 local districts (gminas) in Poland (3.67% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has increased by 50. Drought occurred in 4 voivodeships, in the area of 1.64% of arable land. Table 13 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in potatoes in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 13. Agricultural drought in potatoes

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie826882.9342.82
2.wielkopolskie226146.193.12
3.dolnośląskie16963.550.18
4.zachodniopomorskie11332.650.25

Agricultural drought occurred in sugar beet as well. It was recorded in 71 local districts (gminas) in Poland (2.87% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has increased by 64. Drought occurred in 4 voivodeships, in the area of 0.67% of arable land. Table 14 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in sugar beet in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 14. Agricultural drought in sugar beet

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie826073.1719.24
2.wielkopolskie22673.100.74
3.zachodniopomorskie11321.770.14
4.dolnośląskie16921.180.01

May was cold this year. In the north of the country and in Sudety Foothills temperatures ranged from 10 to 12°C. In the east, the temperature reached 13°C, which was lower than the multiannual norm by about 1°C. In the rest of the country temperature ranged from 12 to 13°C. In the south-western regions of Poland the recorded temperature was lower than the multiannual norm (1981-2010) by more than 2°C, and by 1 to 2°C in the rest of the western regions.

June was very warm. In the majority of areas the air temperature ranged from 20 to 22°C (first decade), and 22 to 24°C or even exceeded 24°C (second and third decade). The lowest temperatures occurred in the northern and southern parts of the country, ranging from 19 to 20°C (first decade) and from 19 to 21°C (second and third decade).

The first decade of July was cold. The lowest temperatures occurred in the northern part of Poland, ranging from below 14.5 to 16°C. In the south temperatures were higher, between 16-19°C. The highest temperatures were recorded in Carpathian Foothills, i.e. above 19°C.

In May precipitation in Poland was high in the majority of areas. However, in Slovincian Coast, in the northern part of Pomeranian Lake District and the eastern part of Południowowielkopolska Lowland (Kutno Plain, Kłodawa Upland Plain, Łowicz-Błonie Plain, Łódź Hills, Łask Upland Plain, Grabów Basin, Złoczew Upland Plain and Szczerców Basin) precipitation was lower, ranging from 40 to 60 mm, which constituted about 70-100% of the norm. In the rest of the country precipitation ranged from 60 to 150 mm (which is 100-180% of the norm).

The first decade of June was mostly dry in the majority of areas, with precipitation below 5 mm or none. Only in the north-western part of the country precipitation was higher, ranging from 10 to 50 mm, and in the eastern regions, where it ranged from 10 to 30 mm. In the second and third decade, in the southern and central regions precipitation remained scarce, below 5 mm (or none) to 15 mm. Relatively high precipitation was recorded in the north of the Poland (in the second decade) and occasionally in the east of the country, where it ranged from 20 to more than 50 mm.

In the first decade of July precipitation was highly diversified. In the northern part of Poland it ranged from 15 to even more than 50 mm, while in the central part of the country it was between 5-15 mm and in the south even below 5mm.

In the recent sixty-day reporting periods, a particularly severe water shortage occurred in the area of central Poland. In the current reporting period water deficit for crops in this area has increased by 10-20 mm in relation to the previous reporting period. The number of gminas affected by agricultural drought has risen for the following eight crops: rape and turnip rape, ground vegetables, maize for grain and maize for silage, tobacco, sugar beet, hops and potatoes. In the rest of the monitored crops the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased. Agricultural drought has been reported for all the monitored crop species or groups.

Executive director

Prof. dr. hab. Wiesław Oleszek

Report prepared by:

Dr hab. Andrzej Doroszewski, prof. nadaw.

Dr hab. Rafał Pudełko

Dr Katarzyna Żyłowska

Dr Jan Jadczyszyn

Mgr Piotr Koza

Mgr Elżbieta Wróblewska

Mgr Agata Nowak