Communication report regarding the incidences of drought conditions in Poland

Year: 2019; period: 07 (21.V - 20.VII)

The Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation – State Research Institute, in accordance with an Act of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development has developed the climatic water balance values for all 2477 Polish local districts (gminas) and, based on soil categories, calculated the current risk of agricultural drought.

In the seventh reporting period, i.e. from May 21st to July 20th, 2019, IUNG-PIB stated agricultural drought conditions in Poland.

The average of Climatic Water Balance values, which are the basis for assessing the risk of agricultural drought, was negative and equalled -133 mm. It has decreased by 39 mm in comparison to the previous sixty-day reporting period (May 11th - July 10th).

The largest water deficit in the period from May 21st to July 20th (as in the previous reporting period) was recorded in Lubuskie Lake District. The Climatic Water Balance values in this area range from -240 to -249 mm. In the majority of lubuskie and wielkopolskie, the northern part of łódzkie and western parts of mazowieckie and lubelskie voivodeships water deficit ranges from -200 mm to -240 mm. A considerable water deficit, from -170 mm to -200 mm, was also recorded in major parts of the following voivodeships: zachodniopomorskie, northern parts of lubelskie, dolnośląskie, opolskie and śląskie, southern parts of podlaskie, mazowieckie, świętokrzyskie, and western regions of kujawsko-pomorskie. In the south of the country, in małopolskie, podkarpackie and dolnośląskie voivodeships, and in the north, in pomorskie and warmińsko-mazurskie voivodeships the recorded water shortages were the lowest in the current sixty-day reporting period, ranging from -50 to -119 mm.

Agricultural drought was stated in the following voivodeships:

  • Lubuskie,
  • Wielkopolskie,
  • Łódzkie,
  • Opolskie,
  • Podlaskie,
  • Mazowieckie,
  • Zachodniopomorskie,
  • Dolnośląskie,
  • Lubelskie,
  • Pomorskie,
  • Kujawsko-pomorskie,
  • Śląskie,
  • Świętokrzyskie,
  • Podkarpackie,
  • Warmińsko – mazurskie.

Agricultural drought was stated in all the monitored crops, as follows:

  • Spring cereals,
  • Winter cereals,
  • Fruit shrubs,
  • Strawberries,
  • Legumes,
  • Maize for grain,
  • Maize for silage,
  • Fruit trees,
  • Ground vegetables,
  • Tobacco,
  • Sugar beet,
  • Potato,
  • Hops.

Table 1 presents the area affected by agricultural drought according to particular crops in the current sixty-day reporting period. Table 2 shows the share of arable land affected by drought.

Table 1.Crops affected by agricultural drought in the period of May 21st – July 20th – the share (%) of gminas at risk of drought occurrence in Poland.

No.CropShare of local districts (gminas) at risk in Poland [%]
1.Maize for grain68.31
2.Maize for silage68.31
3.Fruit shrubs65.68
4.Legumes62.58
5.Spring cereals60.44
6.Winter cereals53.05
7.Ground vegetables50.59
8.Tobacco49.86
9.Strawberries45.74
10.Fruit trees36.58
11.Hops31.17
12.Potato25.84
13.Sugar beet9.04

Table. 2. The share (%) of the area of arable land potentially affected by agricultural drought.

No.CropShare of arable area at risk of agricultural drought [%] in Poland
1.Fruit shrubs45.18
2.Maize for grain41.75
3.Maize for silage41.75
4.Legumes40.66
5.Spring cereals39.15
6.Tobacco31.46
7.Winter cereals29.73
8.Ground vegetables28.67
9.Strawberries24.95
10.Fruit trees16.52
11.Hops13.91
12.Potato10.30
13.Sugar beet3.29

In the seventh reporting period, from May 21st to July 20th, 2019, the highest risk of agricultural drought occurred for maize for grain. Agricultural drought in this crop occurred in 1692 local districts (gminas), which constitute 68.31% of all the local districts in Poland. In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has increased by 815. Agricultural drought occurred in 15 voivodeships, in the area of 47.75% of arable land. Table 3 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in maize for grain in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 3. Agricultural drought in maize for grain

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie8282100.0087.78
2.łódzkie177177100.0081.48
3.opolskie7171100.0032.86
4.wielkopolskie226226100.0094.45
5.zachodniopomorskie113113100.0043.90
6.mazowieckie31431098.7363.52
7.lubelskie21319993.4339.01
8.kujawsko-pomorskie14411680.5641.04
9.podlaskie1189277.9733.41
10.dolnośląskie16910662.7225.05
11.śląskie16710462.2827.82
12.świętokrzyskie1026159.8012.62
13.pomorskie1232520.334.39
14.podkarpackie16095.620.72
15.warmińsko-mazurskie11610.860.00

Agricultural drought affected also maize for silage. It was also recorded in 1692 local districts (gminas) in Poland (68.31% of all local districts in the country), which is 815 more than in the previous reporting period. Agricultural drought occurred in 15 voivodeships, in the area of 41.75% of arable land. Table 4 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in maize for silage in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 4. Agricultural drought in maize for silage

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie8282100.0087.78
2.łódzkie177177100.0081.48
3.opolskie7171100.0032.86
4.wielkopolskie226226100.0094.45
5.zachodniopomorskie113113100.0043.90
6.mazowieckie31431098.7363.52
7.lubelskie21319993.4339.01
8.kujawsko-pomorskie14411680.5641.04
9.podlaskie1189277.9733.41
10.dolnośląskie16910662.7225.05
11.śląskie16710462.2827.82
12.świętokrzyskie1026159.8012.62
13.pomorskie1232520.334.39
14.podkarpackie16095.620.72
15.warmińsko-mazurskie11610.860.00

In the current reporting period agricultural drought affected also fruit shrubs. It was recorded in 1627 local districts (gminas) in Poland (65.68% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has increased by 703. Agricultural drought in fruit shrubs occurred in 14 voivodeships, in the area of 45.18% of arable land. Table 5 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in fruit shrubs in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 5. Agricultural drought in fruit shrubs

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie8282100.0096.26
2.łódzkie177177100.0090.22
3.wielkopolskie226226100.0098.26
4.zachodniopomorskie113113100.0050.36
5.opolskie717098.5938.17
6.mazowieckie31430697.4567.35
7.lubelskie21318988.7343.86
8.kujawsko-pomorskie14411479.1748.04
9.podlaskie1188874.5834.03
10.dolnośląskie16910159.7627.35
11.śląskie1679959.2831.58
12.świętokrzyskie1023938.2410.34
13.pomorskie1231814.634.57
14.podkarpackie16053.120.35

Agricultural drought occurred also in legumes. It was recorded in 1550 local districts (gminas) in Poland (62.58% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has increased by 813. Drought occurred in 14 voivodeships, in the area of 40.66% of arable land. Table 6 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in legumes in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 6. Agricultural drought in legumes

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie8282100.0091.73
2.łódzkie177177100.0084.16
3.wielkopolskie226226100.0096.14
4.opolskie717098.5932.63
5.zachodniopomorskie11310996.4641.73
6.mazowieckie31429794.5960.53
7.lubelskie21318285.4538.85
8.kujawsko-pomorskie14410774.3139.20
9.podlaskie1187765.2526.13
10.dolnośląskie1699355.0325.22
11.śląskie1678852.6923.88
12.świętokrzyskie1022524.516.67
13.pomorskie1231411.382.12
14.podkarpackie16031.880.14

In this reporting period agricultural drought occurred also in spring cereals. It was recorded in 1492 local districts (gminas) in Poland (60.44% of all the local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has increased by 545. Agricultural drought occurred in 14 voivodeships, in the area of 39.15% of arable land. Table 7 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in spring cereals in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 7. Agricultural drought in spring cereals

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie8282100.0091.31
2.łódzkie177177100.0082.88
3.wielkopolskie226226100.0095.67
4.opolskie716895.7732.45
5.zachodniopomorskie11310895.5838.38
6.mazowieckie31429192.6857.58
7.lubelskie21317582.1637.01
8.kujawsko-pomorskie14410371.5337.06
9.podlaskie1186958.4721.51
10.dolnośląskie1698952.6624.70
11.śląskie1677645.5121.85
12.świętokrzyskie1022019.615.29
13.pomorskie123108.131.44
14.podkarpackie16031.880.06

Agricultural drought occurred also in winter cereals. It was recorded in 1314 local districts (gminas) in Poland (53.05% of all the local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has increased by 614. Agricultural drought occurred in 13 voivodeships, in the area of 29.73% of arable land. Table 8 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in winter cereals in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 8. Agricultural drought in winter cereals

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie8282100.0082.96
2.łódzkie177177100.0071.82
3.wielkopolskie226226100.0087.85
4.opolskie716794.3729.37
5.mazowieckie31426684.7137.27
6.lubelskie21315974.6525.94
7.zachodniopomorskie1136557.5215.37
8.kujawsko-pomorskie1448256.9421.24
9.dolnośląskie1697745.5620.04
10.podlaskie1185143.2212.14
11.śląskie1675130.549.98
12.świętokrzyskie10298.821.37
13.pomorskie12321.630.34

Agricultural drought occurred also in ground vegetables. It was recorded in 1253 local districts (gminas) in Poland (50.59% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has increased by 827. Drought occurred in 13 voivodeships, in the area of 28.67% of arable land. Table 9 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in ground vegetables in particular voivodeships

Tab. 9. Agricultural drought in ground vegetables

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie8282100.0083.08
2.wielkopolskie226226100.0087.76
3.łódzkie17717598.8770.49
4.opolskie716692.9628.55
5.mazowieckie31425581.2134.76
6.lubelskie21315673.2424.83
7.zachodniopomorskie1136153.9813.45
8.kujawsko-pomorskie1446746.5318.84
9.dolnośląskie1697343.2019.52
10.podlaskie1184437.2910.50
11.śląskie1674023.957.92
12.świętokrzyskie10276.860.45
13.pomorskie12310.810.05

In the current reporting period agricultural drought occurred also in tobacco. It was recorded in 1235 local districts (gminas) in Poland (49.86% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has increased by 823. Drought occurred in 13 voivodeships, in the area of 31.46% of arable land. Table 10 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in tobacco in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 10. Agricultural drought tobacco

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie8282100.0089.81
2.wielkopolskie226226100.0092.33
3.łódzkie17717498.3175.08
4.opolskie716490.1431.26
5.mazowieckie31425380.5739.26
6.lubelskie21315472.3029.27
7.zachodniopomorskie1135649.5616.36
8.kujawsko-pomorskie1446545.1425.39
9.dolnośląskie1697443.7921.19
10.podlaskie1184134.759.81
11.śląskie1674023.959.68
12.świętokrzyskie10254.900.34
13.pomorskie12310.810.02

Agricultural drought occurred also in strawberries. It was recorded in 1133 local districts (gminas) in Poland (45.74% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has increased by 610. Agricultural drought in strawberries occurred in 12 voivodeships, in the area of 24.95% of arable land. Table 11 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in strawberries in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 11. Agricultural drought in strawberries

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie8282100.0081.22
2.wielkopolskie226226100.0085.42
3.łódzkie17717096.0565.95
4.opolskie716287.3223.76
5.mazowieckie31423073.2528.07
6.lubelskie21313864.7918.26
7.zachodniopomorskie1135044.258.40
8.kujawsko-pomorskie1445538.1911.99
9.dolnośląskie1696437.8716.61
10.podlaskie1182622.033.39
11.śląskie1672917.375.32
12.świętokrzyskie10210.980.05

Agricultural drought was also recorded in fruit trees. It occurred in 906 local districts (gminas) in Poland (36.58% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has increased by 603. Drought occurred in 11 voivodeships, in the area of 16.52% of arable land. Table 12 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in fruit trees in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 12. Agricultural drought in fruit trees

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.wielkopolskie22622499.1268.16
2.lubuskie827996.3465.12
3.łódzkie17715788.7047.63
4.opolskie715678.879.86
5.mazowieckie31416351.9113.71
6.lubelskie2139946.488.88
7.dolnośląskie1695331.368.52
8.zachodniopomorskie1132824.783.68
9.kujawsko-pomorskie1443423.614.59
10.śląskie167127.190.96
11.podlaskie11810.850.00

Agricultural drought affected also hops. It was recorded in 772 local districts (gminas) in Poland (31.17% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has increased by 661. Drought in hops occurred in 9 voivodeships, in the area of 13.91% of arable land. Table 13 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in hops in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 13. Agricultural drought in hops

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.wielkopolskie22622398.6764.29
2.lubuskie827895.1262.81
3.łódzkie17714682.4939.67
4.opolskie715374.657.18
5.mazowieckie31411837.588.50
6.lubelskie2137233.804.77
7.dolnośląskie1694526.636.64
8.zachodniopomorskie1131916.812.08
9.kujawsko-pomorskie1441812.501.74

Agricultural drought occurred in potatoes. It was recorded in 640 local districts (gminas) in Poland (25.84% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has increased by 549. Drought occurred in 9 voivodeships, in the area of 10.30% of arable land. Table 14 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in potatoes in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 14. Agricultural drought in potatoes

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.wielkopolskie22621695.5849.44
2.lubuskie827591.4658.50
3.łódzkie17712470.0626.51
4.opolskie713346.484.06
5.mazowieckie3148928.345.19
6.lubelskie2134923.002.81
7.dolnośląskie1693520.713.85
8.zachodniopomorskie113108.851.33
9.kujawsko-pomorskie14496.251.00

Agricultural drought occurred in sugar beet as well. It was recorded in 224 local districts (gminas) in Poland (9.04% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has increased by 153. Drought occurred in 6 voivodeships, in the area of 3.29% of arable land. Table 15 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in sugar beet in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 15. Agricultural drought in sugar beet

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie825870.7320.85
2.wielkopolskie22613057.5222.93
3.łódzkie1772715.252.99
4.zachodniopomorskie11343.540.42
5.dolnośląskie16921.180.04
6.mazowieckie31430.960.00

May was cold this year. In the north of the country and in Sudety Foothills temperatures ranged from 10 to 12°C. In the east the temperature reached 13°C, which was lower than the multiannual norm by about 1°C. In the rest of the country temperature ranged from 12 to 13°C. In the south-western regions of Poland the recorded temperature was lower than the multiannual norm (1981-2010) by more than 2°C, and by 1 to 2°C in the rest of the western regions.

June was very warm. In the majority of areas the air temperature ranged from 20 to 22°C (first decade), and 22 to 24°C or even exceeded 24°C (second and third decade). The lowest temperatures occurred in the northern and southern parts of the country, ranging from 19 to 20°C (first decade) and from 19 to 21°C (second and third decade).

The first and second decade of July were cold. In the first decade, the lowest temperatures occurred in the northern part of Poland, ranging from below 14.5 to 16°C. In the south temperatures were higher, between 16-19°C. The highest temperatures were recorded in Carpathian Foothills, i.e. slightly above 19°C. In the second decade of the month, the eastern part of the country was the coldest, with temperatures ranging from 16 to 17°C. The highest temperatures were recorded in the western regions, ranging from 17 to 18°C.

In May precipitation in Poland was high in the majority of areas. However, in Slovincian Coast, in the northern part of Pomeranian Lake District and the eastern part of Południowowielkopolska Lowland (Kutno Plain, Kłodawa Upland Plain, Łowicz-Błonie Plain, Łódź Hills, Łask Upland Plain, Grabów Basin, Złoczew Upland Plain and Szczerców Basin) precipitation was lower, ranging from 40 to 60 mm, which constituted about 70-100% of the norm. In the rest of the country precipitation ranged from 60 to 150 mm (which is 100-180% of the norm).

The first decade of June was mostly dry in the majority of areas, with precipitation below 5 mm or none. Only in the north-western part of the country precipitation was higher, ranging from 10 to 50 mm, and in the eastern regions, where it ranged from 10 to 30 mm. In the second and third decade, in the southern and central regions precipitation remained scarce, below 5 mm (or none) to 15 mm. Relatively high precipitation was recorded in the north of the Poland (in the second decade) and occasionally in the east of the country (in the third decade), where it ranged from 20 to more than 50 mm.

In the first decade of July precipitation was highly diversified. In the northern part of Poland it ranged from 15 to even more than 50 mm, while in the central part of the country it was between 5-15 mm, and in the south even below 5mm. In the second decade of the month very low precipitation was recorded throughout the country, ranging from 5 to 10 mm. Only in the south-western regions and in the mountains precipitation was more intense, between 10-30 mm.

In the recent sixty-day reporting periods, a particularly severe water shortage was recorded in Poland. In the current reporting period water deficit for crops has increased in many areas by 20-30 mm, or even more than 30 mm. In relation to the previous reporting period the number of gminas affected by agricultural drought has risen significantly, by 545-827 for most of the monitored crops. Only in case of sugar beet the increase was less sharp, i.e. by 153 gminas. Agricultural drought has been currently reported for all the monitored crop species or groups.

Executive director

Prof. dr. hab. Wiesław Oleszek

Report prepared by:

Dr hab. Andrzej Doroszewski, prof. nadzw.

Dr hab. Rafał Pudełko

Dr Katarzyna Żyłowska

Dr Jan Jadczyszyn

Mgr Piotr Koza

Mgr Elżbieta Wróblewska

Mgr Agata Nowak