Communication report regarding the incidences of drought conditions in Poland

Year: 2019; period: 09 (11.VI - 10.VIII)

The Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation – State Research Institute, in accordance with an Act of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development has developed the climatic water balance values for all 2477 Polish local districts (gminas) and, based on soil categories, calculated the current risk of agricultural drought.

In the ninth reporting period, i.e. from June 11th to August 10th, 2019, IUNG-PIB stated agricultural drought conditions in Poland.

The average of Climatic Water Balance values, which are the basis for assessing the risk of agricultural drought, was negative and equalled -134 mm. It has decreased by 39 mm in comparison to the previous sixty-day reporting period (June 1st - July 31st).

The largest water deficit in the period from June 11th to August 10th (as in the previous reporting periods) was recorded in Lubuskie Lake District. The Climatic Water Balance values in this area range from -240 to -249 mm. Considerable water deficit was also recorded in voivodeships: lubuskie, wielkopolskie, kujawsko-pomorskie, łódzkie, dolnośląskie, opolskie, śląskie, mazowieckie and lubelskie, ranging from -180 to -209 mm. In the southern voivodeships: małopolskie, podkarpackie, dolnośląskie, and in the north, in pomorskie and warmińsko-mazurskie the recorded water deficit was the lowest and ranged from -50 to -119 mm.

Agricultural drought was stated in 15 voivodeships, as follows:

  • Lubuskie,
  • Łódzkie,
  • Wielkopolskie,
  • Opolskie,
  • Lubelskie,
  • Mazowieckie,
  • Śląskie,
  • Świętokrzyskie,
  • Zachodniopomorskie,
  • Dolnośląskie,
  • Kujawsko-pomorskie,
  • Podkarpackie,
  • Podlaskie,
  • Małopolskie,
  • Pomorskie.

In the current reporting period, agricultural drought did not occur only in one voivodeship, i.e. warmińsko-mazurskie.

Agricultural drought was stated in all the monitored crops, as follows:

  • Spring cereals,
  • Winter cereals,
  • Fruit shrubs,
  • Strawberries,
  • Legumes,
  • Maize for grain,
  • Maize for silage,
  • Fruit trees,
  • Ground vegetables,
  • Tobacco,
  • Sugar beet,
  • Potato,
  • Hops.

Table 1 presents the area affected by agricultural drought according to particular crops in the current sixty-day reporting period.

Tabela 1. Crops affected by agricultural drought in the period of June 11th – August 10th – the share (%) of gminas at risk of drought occurrence in Poland.

No.CropShare of local districts (gminas) at risk in Poland [%]Share of arable area at risk of agricultural drought [%] in Poland
1.Maize for grain171169.08
2.Maize for silage169868.55
3.Fruit shrubs152261.45
4.Legumes142757.61
5.Ground vegetables110644.65
6Tobacco101140.82
7.Potato95038.35
8.Hops78531.69
9.Strawberries55722.49
10.Spring cereals41416.71
11.Fruit trees33913.69
12.Sugar beet29711.99
13.Winter cereals1797.23

Information on the area of arable land affected by drought in the current sixty-day reporting period is presented in table 2.

Table. 2. The share (%) of the area of arable land potentially affected by agricultural drought.

No.CropShare of arable area at risk of agricultural drought [%] in Poland
1.Fruit shrubs35.51
2.Maize for silage35.48
3.Maize for grain34.88
4.Legumes31.13
5.Tobacco21.47
6.Ground vegetables20.69
7.Potato16.81
8.Hops13.95
9.Strawberries 9.04
10.Spring cereals 5.89
11.Sugar beet 4.74
12.Fruit trees 4.53
13.Winter cereals 2.11

In the ninth reporting period, from June 11th to August 10th, 2019, the highest risk of agricultural drought occurred for maize for silage. Agricultural drought in this crop occurred in 1711 local districts (gminas), which constitute 69.08% of all the local districts in Poland. In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 520. Agricultural drought occurred in 15 voivodeships, in the area of 35.48% of arable land. Table 3 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in maize for silage in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 3. Agricultural drought in maize for silage

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1lubuskie8282100.0091.54
2łódzkie177177100.0075.60
3wielkopolskie226226100.0085.47
4opolskie717098.5932.22
5lubelskie21320897.6534.95
6mazowieckie31425079.6240.27
7śląskie16713279.0436.25
8świętokrzyskie1028078.4322.68
9zachodniopomorskie1138877.8834.57
10dolnośląskie16913076.9228.80
11kujawsko-pomorskie14410170.1423.74
12podkarpackie1606339.3811.20
13podlaskie1184235.599.44
14małopolskie1825228.572.64
15pomorskie123108.131.54

Agricultural drought affected also maize for grain. It was recorded in 1698 local districts (gminas) in Poland (68.55% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of local districts affected by drought decreased by 533. Agricultural drought occurred in 15 voivodeships, in the area of 34.88% of arable land. Table 4 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in maize for grain in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 4. Agricultural drought in maize for grain

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1lubuskie8282100.0091.34
2łódzkie177177100.0075.16
3wielkopolskie226226100.0084.51
4opolskie717098.5932.08
5lubelskie21320596.2434.00
6mazowieckie31424979.3039.43
7śląskie16713279.0434.27
8świętokrzyskie1028078.4322.11
9zachodniopomorskie1138776.9933.48
10dolnośląskie16913076.9228.63
11kujawsko-pomorskie14410069.4423.05
12podkarpackie1606339.3810.91
13podlaskie1183731.369.12
14małopolskie1825027.472.52
15pomorskie123108.131.34

In the current reporting period agricultural drought affected also fruit shrubs. It was recorded in 1522 local districts (gminas) in Poland (61.45% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 627. Agricultural drought in fruit shrubs occurred in 15 voivodeships, in the area of 35.51% of arable land. Table 5 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in fruit shrubs in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 5. Agricultural drought in fruit shrubs

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1lubuskie8282100.0096.78
2łódzkie177177100.0077.43
3wielkopolskie226226100.0090.60
4opolskie716895.7733.35
5lubelskie21317481.6934.92
6śląskie16712876.6540.97
7mazowieckie31423574.8438.89
8dolnośląskie16912171.6031.09
9zachodniopomorskie1137667.2633.51
10świętokrzyskie1026361.7616.85
11kujawsko-pomorskie1447350.6922.33
12podkarpackie1604125.626.07
13podlaskie1182722.886.49
14małopolskie1822915.931.17
15pomorskie12321.630.13

Agricultural drought occurred also in legumes. It was recorded in 1427 local districts (gminas) in Poland (57.61% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 677. Drought occurred in 15 voivodeships, in the area of 31.13% of arable land. Table 6 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in legumes in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 6. Agricultural drought in legumes

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1lubuskie8282100.0093.76
2łódzkie177177100.0072.06
3wielkopolskie226226100.0083.12
4opolskie716591.5531.48
5śląskie16712776.0530.29
6lubelskie21316175.5929.34
7mazowieckie31422371.0232.06
8dolnośląskie16911668.6428.83
9zachodniopomorskie1137364.6025.78
10świętokrzyskie1024645.1012.84
11kujawsko-pomorskie1445940.9717.83
12podlaskie1182319.495.02
13podkarpackie1602817.503.33
14małopolskie1821910.440.35
15pomorskie12321.630.03

Agricultural drought occurred also in ground vegetables. It was recorded in 1106 local districts (gminas) in Poland (44.65% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 760. Drought occurred in 12 voivodeships, in the area of 20.69% of arable land. Table 7 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in ground vegetables in particular voivodeships

Tab. 7. Agricultural drought in ground vegetables

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1lubuskie8282100.0084.32
2łódzkie17717196.6147.27
3wielkopolskie22621695.5871.14
4opolskie715983.1023.89
5dolnośląskie16910260.3623.94
6mazowieckie31417355.1015.84
7śląskie1679154.4910.53
8lubelskie21311453.5216.72
9zachodniopomorskie1135145.1310.02
10kujawsko-pomorskie1443020.833.82
11świętokrzyskie1021312.753.39
12podlaskie11843.390.05

In the current reporting period agricultural drought occurred also in tobacco. It was recorded in 1011 local districts (gminas) in Poland (74.04% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 823. Drought occurred in 11 voivodeships, in the area of 21.47% of arable land. Table 8 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in tobacco in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 8. Agricultural drought tobacco

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1lubuskie8282100.0092.86
2łódzkie17716693.7949.14
3wielkopolskie22620791.5972.25
4opolskie715983.1026.13
5dolnośląskie1699958.5826.46
6mazowieckie31415950.6415.68
7lubelskie21310247.8918.15
8zachodniopomorskie1134640.7110.50
9śląskie1675935.337.18
10kujawsko-pomorskie1442315.974.61
11świętokrzyskie10298.822.22

Agricultural drought occurred also in potatoes. It was recorded in 950 local districts (gminas) in Poland (38.35% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 630. Drought occurred in 11 voivodeships, in the area of 16.81% of arable land. Table 9 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in potatoes in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 9. Agricultural drought in potatoes

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1lubuskie8282100.0084.61
2łódzkie17716090.4037.54
3wielkopolskie22620289.3863.18
4opolskie715881.6918.27
5dolnośląskie1699656.8020.28
6mazowieckie31414546.189.44
7lubelskie2139343.6610.25
8zachodniopomorskie1134136.286.52
9śląskie1674426.355.81
10kujawsko-pomorskie1442114.582.69
11świętokrzyskie10287.841.61

Agricultural drought affected also hops. It was recorded in 785 local districts (gminas) in Poland (31.69 % of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 817. Drought in hops occurred in 11 voivodeships, in the area of 13.95% of arable land. Table 10 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in hops in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 10. Agricultural drought in hops

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1lubuskie8282100.0080.24
2wielkopolskie22619284.9655.54
3łódzkie17713777.4029.02
4opolskie715476.0611.79
5dolnośląskie1698852.0718.27
6lubelskie2137032.86790
7mazowieckie3149128.986.14
8zachodniopomorskie1133127.434.40
9śląskie1672414.372.91
10kujawsko-pomorskie144128.331.73
11świętokrzyskie10243.920.34

Agricultural drought occurred also in strawberries. It was recorded in 577 local districts (gminas) in Poland (22.49% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 1066. Agricultural drought in strawberries occurred in 10 voivodeships, in the area of 9.04% of arable land. Table 11 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in strawberries in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 11. Agricultural drought in strawberries

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1lubuskie8282100.0076.88
2wielkopolskie22617577.4337.73
3opolskie713853.526.16
4dolnośląskie1697745.5613.05
5łódzkie1777341.2412.18
6lubelskie2134119.253.36
7mazowieckie3144815.292.44
8zachodniopomorskie1131614.162.61
9kujawsko-pomorskie14464.170.36
10śląskie16710.600.02

In the reporting period from June 11th t° August 10th agricultural drought occurred also in spring cereals. It was recorded in 414 local districts (gminas) in Poland (16.71% of all the local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 1419. Agricultural drought occurred in 8 voivodeships, in the area of 5.89% of arable land. Table 12 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in spring cereals in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 12. Agricultural drought in spring cereals

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1lubuskie8282100.0068.90
2wielkopolskie22616271.6825.32
3opolskie712940.853.34
4dolnośląskie1696337.288.24
5łódzkie1773922.034.58
6zachodniopomorskie1131412.391.61
7mazowieckie314154.780.14
8lubelskie213104.690.42

Agricultural drought was also recorded in fruit trees. It occurred in 339 local districts (gminas) in Poland (13.69% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 1127. Drought occurred in 7 voivodeships, in the area of 4.53% of arable land. Table 13 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in fruit trees in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 13. Agricultural drought in fruit trees

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1lubuskie8282100.0059.97
2wielkopolskie22615066.3719.07
3dolnośląskie1695029.596.32
4opolskie711825.351.72
5łódzkie1772413.562.26
6zachodniopomorskie1131210.621.06
7lubelskie21331.410.02

Agricultural drought affected sugar beet as well. It was recorded in 297 local districts (gminas) in Poland (11.99% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 770. Drought occurred in 6 voivodeships, in the area of 4.74% of arable land. Table 14 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in sugar beet in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 14. Agricultural drought in sugar beet

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1lubuskie8282100.0039.84
2wielkopolskie22613861.0626.98
3dolnośląskie1694426.047.73
4opolskie711014.082.07
5zachodniopomorskie11397.961.12
6łódzkie177147.910.51

Agricultural drought affected also winter cereals. It was recorded in 179 local districts (gminas) in Poland (7.23% of all the local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 1422. Agricultural drought occurred in 4 voivodeships, in the area of 2.11% of arable land. Table 15 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in winter cereals in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 15. Agricultural drought in winter cereals

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie828198.7843.29
2.wielkopolskie2267030.975.61
3.dolnośląskie1692514.792.94
4.zachodniopomorskie11332.650.31

June was very warm. The highest temperatures occurred in south-western parts of Poland and ranged from 22 to more than 23°C (exceeding the multiannual norm by 6°C). The lowest temperatures occurred in the northern and southern parts of the country, ranging from 19 to 22°C but still exceeding the multiannual norm by 3-6°C.

The first and second decade of July were cold, but the third one was warmer. In the first decade, the lowest temperatures occurred in the northern part of Poland, ranging from below 14.5 to 16°C. In the south temperatures were higher, between 16-19°C. The highest temperatures were recorded in Carpathian Foothills, i.e. slightly above 19°C. In the second decade of the month, the eastern part of the country was the coldest, with temperatures ranging from 16 to 17°C, whilst the highest temperatures were recorded in the western regions, ranging from 17 to 18°C. The third decade of July was the warmest in the western regions of Poland, with temperatures ranging from 22 to more than 23°C, and the coldest (but still relatively warm) in north-eastern part of the country, from 19 to 20°C.

The first decade of August was warm in south-western part of the country, with air temperature ranging from 20 to more than 20.5°C. The lowest temperatures occurred in north-eastern regions, reaching from 16 to 17°C.

In June, in the majority of areas precipitation was scarce, in particular in Wielkopolskie Lake District, Wielkopolska Lowland, Kraków-Częstochowa Upland and Sandomierz Basin, where it ranged from 10 to 20 mm and constituted 20-30% of the multiannual norm. Relatively high precipitation was recorded in north-eastern parts of Poland, ranging from 60 to 110 mm, which constituted from 100 to more than 130% of the norm. In the majority of areas precipitation ranged from 20 to 60 mm (30-100% of the norm).

In the first and third decade of July precipitation was highly diversified. In the first decade in the northern part of Poland and in the third decade in the south-eastern regions it ranged from 15 to even more than 50 mm, whilst in the central part of the country it was only between 5-15 mm. In the south of Poland during the first decade and in the north-western regions during the third precipitation was even below 5 mm, whilst in the second decade of the month very scarce precipitation was recorded throughout the country, ranging from 5 to 10 mm. Only in the south-western regions and in the mountains rainfalls were more intense, reaching from 10 to 30 mm.

In the first decade of August, in central regions of the country precipitation was scarce, from below 5 to 15 mm. In southern and northern parts of Poland rainfalls were more abundant, ranging from 15 to 50 mm.

In the last sixty-day reporting period, for the first time since June 10th an increase of Climatic Water Balance has been recorded. In the previous six reporting periods water deficit had been growing steadily, resulting in the increase of area affected by drought for all the monitored crops and in all the voivodeships in Poland. Recently, water deficiency affecting crops has started t° decrease. In the current reporting period, in relation to the previous one, the number of gminas affected by agricultural drought has decreased significantly for all the monitored crops, ranging from 520 in case of maize for silage to even 1422 in case of winter cereals. Still, agricultural drought has been reported for all the monitored crop species or groups in 15 voivodeships.

Executive director

Prof. dr. hab. Wiesław Oleszek

Report prepared by:

Dr hab. Andrzej Doroszewski, prof. nadzw.

Dr hab. Rafał Pudełko

Dr Katarzyna Żyłowska

Dr Jan Jadczyszyn

Mgr Piotr Koza

Mgr Elżbieta Wróblewska

Mgr Agata Nowak