Communication report regarding the incidences of drought conditions in Poland

Year: 2019; period: 10 (21.VI - 20.VIII)

The Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation – State Research Institute, in accordance with an Act of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development has developed the climatic water balance values for all 2477 Polish local districts (gminas) and, based on soil categories, calculated the current risk of agricultural drought.

In the tenth reporting period, i.e. from June 21st to August 20th, 2019, IUNG-PIB stated agricultural drought conditions in Poland.

The average of Climatic Water Balance values, which are the basis for assessing the risk of agricultural drought, was negative and equalled -106 mm. It has decreased by 28 mm in comparison to the previous sixty-day reporting period (June 11th - August 10th).

The largest water deficit in the period from June 21st to August 20th (as in the previous reporting periods) was recorded in Lubuskie Lake District. The Climatic Water Balance values in this area range from -190 to -209 mm. Considerable water deficit was also recorded in voivodeships: wielkopolskie, łódzkie, and in the western part of zachodniopomorskie, ranging from -160 to -179 mm. In vast areas in Poland water deficit ranges from -110 to -159 mm. In the south of the country, as well as in Masurian Lake District, the recorded water deficit was the lowest in the current reporting period and ranged from less than -50 to -99 mm.

Agricultural drought was stated in 11 voivodeships, as follows:

  • Lubuskie,
  • Wielkopolskie,
  • Łódzkie,
  • Zachodniopomorskie,
  • Kujawsko-pomorskie,
  • Opolskie,
  • Dolnośląskie,
  • Mazowieckie,
  • Lubelskie,
  • Pomorskie,
  • Śląskie.

In the current reporting period, agricultural drought has not been stated in the following voivodeships: małopolskie, podkarpackie, podlaskie, świętokrzyskie and warmińsko-mazurskie.

Agricultural drought affected nine of the monitored crops, as follows:

  • Maize for silage,
  • Maize for grain,
  • Fruit shrubs,
  • Legumes,
  • Potato,
  • Ground vegetables,
  • Hops,
  • Tobacco,
  • Sugar beet.

Table 1 presents the area affected by agricultural drought according to particular crops in the current sixty-day reporting period.

Table 1. Crops affected by agricultural drought in the period of June 21st – August 20th – the share (%) of gminas at risk of drought occurrence in Poland.

No.CropShare of local districts (gminas) at risk in Poland [%]Share of arable area at risk of agricultural drought [%] in Poland
1.Maize for silage90536.54
2.Maize for grain84033.91
3.Fruit shrubs60624.47
4.Legumes47319.10
5.Potato29812.03
6Ground vegetables194 7.83
7.Hops130 5.25
8.Tobacco130 5.25
9.Sugar beet 61 2.46

Information on the area of arable land affected by drought in the current sixty-day reporting period is presented in table 2.

Table. 2. The share (%) of the area of arable land potentially affected by agricultural drought.

No.CropShare of arable area at risk of agricultural drought [%] in Poland
1.Maize for silage13.70
2.Maize for grain12.33
3.Fruit shrubs13.25
4.Legumes 6.99
5.Potato 4.30
6Ground vegetables 2.30
7.Hops 1.46
8.Tobacco 1.71
9.Sugar beet 0.29

In the tenth reporting period, from June 21st to August 20th, 2019, the highest risk of agricultural drought occurred for maize for silage. Agricultural drought in this crop occurred in 905 local districts (gminas), which constitute 36.54% of all the local districts in Poland. In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 806. Agricultural drought occurred in 11 voivodeships, in the area of 13.70% of arable land. Table 3 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in maize for silage in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 3. Agricultural drought in maize for silage

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie8282100.0079.84
2.wielkopolskie226226100.0048.01
3.łódzkie17716593.2236.45
4.zachodniopomorskie1139382.3022.30
5.kujawsko-pomorskie1449968.7511.95
6.opolskie714259.156.35
7.dolnośląskie1697343.209.38
8.mazowieckie3148828.034.36
9.lubelskie2132310.801.41
10.pomorskie12397.321.71
11.śląskie16752.990.63

Agricultural drought affected also maize for grain. It was recorded in 840 local districts (gminas) in Poland (33.91% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of local districts affected by drought decreased by 858. Agricultural drought occurred in 11 voivodeships, in the area of 12.33% of arable land. Table 4 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in maize for grain in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 4. Agricultural drought in maize for grain

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie8282100.0078.71
2.wielkopolskie226226100.0041.73
3.łódzkie17716090.4035.29
4.zachodniopomorskie1139079.6520.27
5.kujawsko-pomorskie1448961.8110.33
6.opolskie713752.115.03
7.dolnośląskie1696538.469.03
8.mazowieckie3146821.662.78
9.pomorskie12386.501.25
10.lubelskie213136.100.64
11.śląskie16721.200.18

In the current reporting period agricultural drought affected also fruit shrubs. It was recorded in 606 local districts (gminas) in Poland (24.47% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 916. Agricultural drought in fruit shrubs occurred in 8 voivodeships, in the area of 13.25% of arable land. Table 5 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in fruit shrubs in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 5. Agricultural drought in fruit shrubs.

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie8282100.0080.95
2.wielkopolskie22621796.0261.06
3.łódzkie17712369.4924.97
4.zachodniopomorskie1137869.0324.10
5.kujawsko-pomorskie1445336.8111.06
6.dolnośląskie1694928.997.82
7.opolskie7122.820.00
8.pomorskie12321.630.09

Agricultural drought occurred also in legumes. It was recorded in 473 local districts (gminas) in Poland (19.10% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 954. Drought occurred in 6 voivodeships, in the area of 6.99% of arable land. Table 6 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in legumes in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 6. Agricultural drought in legumes

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie8282100.0075.96
2.wielkopolskie22619887.6128.20
3.zachodniopomorskie1136456.6410.90
4.łódzkie1776134.467.78
5.kujawsko-pomorskie1443725.694.43
6.dolnośląskie1693118.343.99

Agricultural drought occurred also in potatoes. It was recorded in 298 local districts (gminas) in Poland (12.03% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 652. Drought occurred in 5 voivodeships, in the area of 4.30% of arable land. Table 7 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in potatoes in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 7. Agricultural drought in potatoes

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie8282100.0064.02
2.wielkopolskie22613660.1817.43
3.zachodniopomorskie1134539.825.29
4.dolnośląskie1691911.241.33
5.kujawsko-pomorskie1441611.112.13

Agricultural drought was recorded also in ground vegetables. It occurred in 194 local districts (gminas) in Poland (7.83% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 912. Drought occurred in 5 voivodeships, in the area of 2.30% of arable land. Table 8 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in ground vegetables in particular voivodeships

Tab. 8. Agricultural drought in ground vegetables

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie8282100.0048.43
2.wielkopolskie2267934.966.43
3.zachodniopomorskie1131815.931.65
4.dolnośląskie169105.920.29
5.kujawsko-pomorskie14453.470.72

Agricultural drought affected also hops. It was recorded in 130 local districts (gminas) in Poland (5.25 % of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 655. Drought in hops occurred in 5 voivodeships, in the area of 1.46% of arable land. Table 9 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in hops in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 9. Agricultural drought in hops

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie828198.7838.95
2.wielkopolskie2263314.602.18
3.zachodniopomorskie11387.080.58
4.dolnośląskie16963.550.18
5.kujawsko-pomorskie14421.390.15

Agricultural drought occurred also in tobacco. It was recorded in 130 local districts (gminas) in Poland (5.25% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 881. Drought occurred in 5 voivodeships, in the area of 1.71% of arable land. Table 10 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in tobacco in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 10. Agricultural drought tobacco

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie828198.7846.95
2.wielkopolskie2263314.602.21
3.zachodniopomorskie11387.080.79
4.dolnośląskie16963.550.18
5.kujawsko-pomorskie14421.390.15

Agricultural drought affected sugar beet as well. It was recorded in 61 local districts (gminas) in Poland (2.46% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 236. Drought occurred in 3 voivodeships, in the area of 0.29% of arable land. Table 11 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in sugar beet in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 11. Agricultural drought in sugar beet

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie825668.299.03
2.zachodniopomorskie11321.770.21
3.wielkopolskie22631.330.03

The third decade of June was very warm. In the majority of Poland temperatures ranged from 22 to 24°C or more. The lowest temperatures occurred in the northern and southern parts of the country, ranging from 19 to 21°C.

In July the lowest temperatures occurred in the north-eastern part of Poland, ranging from 15 to 18°C, which was 0.5-1.5°C below the multiannual norm. In the south temperatures were higher, from18 to 20°C. The highest temperatures (slightly above 20°C) occurred in the Silesian Lowland. In the south-western regions of Poland, temperatures exceed the multiannual norm by 0.5-1.5°C.

The first decade of August was warm in south-western part of the country, with air temperature ranging from 20 to more than 20.5°C. The lowest temperatures occurred in north-eastern regions, reaching from 16 to 17°C. The second decade of the month was warm in the majority of areas, with temperatures ranging from 18 do 20°C. Only in the north and south-western regions of the country it was slightly colder, from 16 to 18°C.

In the third decade of June precipitation was scarce, reaching 15 mm in the southern and central parts of Poland. Relatively high precipitation occurred in the east, ranging from 20 to more than 50 mm.

In July precipitation was highly diversified. In the northern part of Poland, in Żarnowiec High Plain, Kashubian Coast and Kashubian Lake District, and in Hel Peninsula precipitation ranged from 70 to even more than 150 mm. Slightly lower values were recorded in Podlasie Lowland, from 70 to 120 mm. In all these areas the recorded precipitation constituted 100-1405 of the multiannual norm. Relatively high precipitation was recorded in Silesian Upland and Carpathian Foothills, ranging from 70 to 130 mm. In the rest of the country precipitation was less intense, from 20 to 70 mm, and constituted 40-100% of the norm.

In the first decade of August, in central regions of the country precipitation was scarce, from below 5 to 15 mm. Similar values were recorded in the second decade of the month in the north of Poland, whilst in southern and northern parts of Poland in the first decade rainfalls were more abundant, ranging from 15 to 50 mm, same as in the south of the country in the second decade of the month.

In the last two sixty-day reporting period an increase of Climatic Water Balance has been recorded, whilst in the previous six reporting periods water deficit had been growing steadily, resulting in the increase of area affected by drought for all the monitored crops and in all the voivodeships in Poland. Recently, water deficiency affecting crops has decreased. In the current reporting period, in relation to the previous one, the number of gminas affected by agricultural drought has decreased significantly for all the monitored crops, ranging from 236 in case of sugar beet to 954 in case of legumes. Still, agricultural drought has been reported for 9 of the monitored crop species or groups in 11 voivodeships.

Executive director

Prof. dr. hab. Wiesław Oleszek

Report prepared by:

Dr hab. Andrzej Doroszewski, prof. nadzw.

Dr hab. Rafał Pudełko

Dr Katarzyna Żyłowska

Dr Jan Jadczyszyn

Mgr Piotr Koza

Mgr Elżbieta Wróblewska

Mgr Agata Nowak