Communication report regarding the incidences of drought conditions in Poland

Year: 2019; period: 11 (1.VII - 31.VIII)

The Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation – State Research Institute, in accordance with an Act of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development has developed the climatic water balance values for all 2477 Polish local districts (gminas) and, based on soil categories, calculated the current risk of agricultural drought.

In the eleventh reporting period, i.e. from July 1st to August 31st, 2019, IUNG-PIB stated agricultural drought conditions in Poland.

The average of Climatic Water Balance values, which are the basis for assessing the risk of agricultural drought, was negative and equalled -91 mm. It has increased by 15 mm in comparison to the previous sixty-day reporting period (June 21st - August 20th).

The largest water deficit in the period from July 1st to August 30th (as in the previous reporting periods) was recorded in Lubuskie Lake District. The Climatic Water Balance values in this area range from -170 to -209 mm. Considerable water deficit was also recorded in the western part of Wielkopolskie Lake District, Wielkopolska Lowland, Silesian Lowland, in the southern part of Masovian Lowland and in Polesie Lubelskie. In the south of the country, as well as in Masurian Lake District, the recorded water deficit was the lowest in the current reporting period and ranged from -50 to -119 mm.

Agricultural drought was stated in 6 voivodeships, as follows:

  • Lubuskie,
  • Wielkopolskie,
  • Łódzkie,
  • Zachodniopomorskie,
  • Kujawsko-pomorskie,
  • Dolnośląskie.

Agricultural drought affected nine of the monitored crops, as follows:

  • Maize for silage,
  • Maize for grain,
  • Fruit shrubs,
  • Potato,
  • Legumes,
  • Ground vegetables,
  • Hops,
  • Sugar beet,
  • Tobacco.

Table 1 presents the area affected by agricultural drought according to particular crops in the current sixty-day reporting period.

Table 1. Crops affected by agricultural drought in the period of July 1st – August 31st – the share (%) of gminas at risk of drought occurrence in Poland.

No.CropShare of local districts (gminas) at risk in Poland [%]Share of arable area at risk of agricultural drought [%] in Poland
1.Maize for silage50120.23
2.Maize for grain44117.80
3.Fruit shrubs36714.82
4.Potato209 8.44
5.Legumes157 6.34
6Ground vegetables 40 1.61
7.Hops 40 1.61
8.Sugar beet 32 1.29
9.Tobacco 30 1.21

Information on the area of arable land affected by drought in the current sixty-day reporting period is presented in table 2.

Table. 2. The share (%) of the area of arable land potentially affected by agricultural drought.

No.CropShare of arable area at risk of agricultural drought [%] in Poland
1.Maize for silage6.59
2.Maize for grain5.75
3.Fruit shrubs4.89
4.Potato2.34
5.Legumes1.80
6Ground vegetables0.40
7.Hops0.45
8.Sugar beet0.26
9.Tobacco0.17

In the eleventh reporting period, from July 1st to August 31st, 2019, the highest risk of agricultural drought occurred for maize for silage. Agricultural drought in this crop occurred in 501 local districts (gminas), which constitute 20.23% of all the local districts in Poland. In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 404. Agricultural drought occurred in 6 voivodeships, in the area of 6.59% of arable land. Table 3 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in maize for silage in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 3. Agricultural drought in maize for silage

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie828097.5653.01
2.wielkopolskie22619284.9627.29
3.łódzkie1779151.4118.23
4.kujawsko-pomorskie1447451.39 7.55
5.zachodniopomorskie1135145.13 5.67
6.dolnośląskie16913 7.69 0.50

Agricultural drought affected also maize for grain. It was recorded in 441 local districts (gminas) in Poland (17.80% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of local districts affected by drought decreased by 399. Agricultural drought occurred in 6 voivodeships, in the area of 5.75% of arable land. Table 4 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in maize for grain in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 4. Agricultural drought in maize for grain

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie827692.6848.34
2.wielkopolskie22618180.0924.84
3.łódzkie1778346.8915.31
4.kujawsko-pomorskie1445739.585.49
5.zachodniopomorskie1133833.634.24
6.dolnośląskie1696 3.550.19

In the current reporting period agricultural drought affected also fruit shrubs. It was recorded in 367 local districts (gminas) in Poland (14.82% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 239. Agricultural drought in fruit shrubs occurred in 6 voivodeships, in the area of 4.89% of arable land. Table 5 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in fruit shrubs in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 5. Agricultural drought in fruit shrubs.

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie826882.9351.64
2.wielkopolskie22616773.8920.27
3.łódzkie1776033.9011.22
4.kujawsko-pomorskie1444128.47 3.33
5.zachodniopomorskie1132723.89 3.43
6.dolnośląskie1694 2.37 0.02

Agricultural drought occurred also in potatoes. It was recorded in 209 local districts (gminas) in Poland (8.44% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 89. Drought occurred in 5 voivodeships, in the area of 2.34% of arable land. Table 6 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in potatoes in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 6. Agricultural drought in potatoes

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie825769.5139.58
2.wielkopolskie22610044.25 8.73
3.łódzkie1772815.82 1.33
4.zachodniopomorskie1131412.39 1.43
5.kujawsko-pomorskie14410 6.94 0.75

Agricultural drought occurred also in legumes. It was recorded in 157 local districts (gminas) in Poland (6.34% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 316. Drought occurred in 5 voivodeships, in the area of 1.80% of arable land. Table 7 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in legumes in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 7. Agricultural drought in legumes

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie825567.0734.08
2.wielkopolskie2267533.196.27
3.zachodniopomorskie11310 8.851.20
4.łódzkie17711 6.210.29
5.kujawsko-pomorskie144 6 4.170.40

Agricultural drought was recorded also in ground vegetables. It occurred in 40 local districts (gminas) in Poland (1.61 % of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 154. Drought occurred in 3 voivodeships, in the area of 0.40% of arable land. Table 8 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in ground vegetables in particular voivodeships

Tab. 8. Agricultural drought in ground vegetables

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie823441.4612.83
2.zachodniopomorskie1133 2.65 0.22
3.wielkopolskie2263 1.33 0.04

Agricultural drought affected also hops. It was recorded in 40 local districts (gminas) in Poland (1.61 % of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 90. Drought in hops occurred in 3 voivodeships, in the area of 0.45% of arable land. Table 9 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in hops in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 9. Agricultural drought in hops

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie823441.4614.16
2.zachodniopomorskie1133 2.65 0.23
3.wielkopolskie2263 1.33 0.06

Agricultural drought affected sugar beet as well. It was recorded in 32 local districts (gminas) in Poland (1.29% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 29. Drought occurred in 3 voivodeships, in the area of 0.26% of arable land. Table 10 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in sugar beet in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 10. Agricultural drought in sugar beet

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie822935.377.81
2.zachodniopomorskie11321.770.35
3.wielkopolskie22610.440.00

Agricultural drought occurred also in tobacco. It was recorded in 30 local districts (gminas) in Poland (1.21% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 100. Drought occurred in 3 voivodeships, in the area of 0.17% of arable land. Table 11 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in tobacco in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 11. Agricultural drought in tobacco

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie822732.935.58
2.zachodniopomorskie113 2 1.770.07
3.wielkopolskie226 1 0.440.00

In July the lowest temperatures occurred in the north-eastern part of Poland, ranging from 15 to 18°C, which was 0.5-1.5°C below the multiannual norm. In the south temperatures were higher, from18 to 20°C. The highest temperatures (slightly above 20°C) occurred in the Silesian Lowland. In the south-western regions of Poland, temperatures exceed the multiannual norm by 0.5-1.5°C.

August was warm this year. In the first decade, in south-western part of the country, the air temperatures ranged from 20 to more than 20.5°C. The lowest temperatures occurred in north-eastern regions, reaching from 16 to 17°C. The second decade of the month was warm in the majority of areas, with temperatures ranging from 18 do 20°C. Only in the north and south-western regions of the country it was slightly colder, from 16 to 18°C. The third decade of the month was the warmest. In the north-eastern regions of Poland temperatures ranged from 18 to 20°C, in the majority of areas from 20 to 22°C, and in the western part of the country from 22 to more than 22.5°C.

In July precipitation was highly diversified. In the northern part of Poland, in Żarnowiec High Plain, Kashubian Coast and Kashubian Lake District, and in Hel Peninsula precipitation ranged from 70 to even more than 150 mm. Slightly lower values were recorded in Podlasie Lowland, from 70 to 120 mm. In all these areas the recorded precipitation constituted 100-140 of the multiannual norm. Relatively high precipitation was recorded in Silesian Upland and Carpathian Foothills, ranging from 70 to 130 mm. In the rest of the country precipitation was less intense, from 20 to 70 mm, and constituted 40-100% of the norm.

In the first decade of August, in central regions of the country precipitation was scarce, from below 5 to 15 mm. Similar values were recorded in the north of Poland in the second decade of the month. In the south and north during the first decade precipitation was higher, ranging from 15 to more than 50 mm. Similar situation was recorded in the south of Poland in the second decade of the month. In the third decade of August, in the vast areas of the country precipitation was lower than 10 mm. Only in the north and south of Poland it was slightly more abundant and ranged from 10 to 35 mm.

In the last three sixty-day reporting periods (June 11th – August 10th, June 21st –August 20th, July 1st – August 31st) an increase of Climatic Water Balance has been recorded. Before that, water deficit had been growing steadily, resulting in the increase of area affected by drought for all the monitored crops and in all the voivodeships in Poland. Recently, water deficiency has decreased and hence the area affected by drought has also decreased significantly, especially in the following crops: maize for silage and for grain, legumes and fruit shrubs. In the current reporting period, in relation to the previous one, the number of gminas affected by agricultural drought has decreased for all the monitored crops, ranging from 29 in case of sugar beet t° 404 in case of maize for silage. Still, agricultural drought has been reported for 9 of the monitored crop species or groups in 6 voivodeships.

Executive director

Prof. dr. hab. Wiesław Oleszek

Report prepared by:

Dr hab. Andrzej Doroszewski, prof. nadzw.

Dr hab. Rafał Pudełko

Dr Katarzyna Żyłowska

Dr Jan Jadczyszyn

Mgr Piotr Koza

Mgr Elżbieta Wróblewska

Mgr Agata Nowak