Communication report regarding the incidences of drought conditions in Poland

Year: 2019; period: 12 (11.VII - 10.IX)

The Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation – State Research Institute, in accordance with an Act of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development has developed the climatic water balance values for all 2477 Polish local districts (gminas) and, based on soil categories, calculated the current risk of agricultural drought.

In the twelfth reporting period, i.e. from July 11th to September 10th, 2019, IUNG-PIB stated agricultural drought conditions in Poland.

The average of Climatic Water Balance values, which are the basis for assessing the risk of agricultural drought, was negative and equalled -54 mm. It has increased by 37 mm in comparison to the previous sixty-day reporting period (July 1st - August 31st). It is the fourth subsequent reporting period with a recorded increase of CWB values.

The largest water deficit in the period from July 11th to September 10th (as in the previous reporting periods) was recorded in Lubuskie Lake District. The Climatic Water Balance values in this area range from -140 to -179 mm. Considerable water deficit (from -120 to -149 mm) was also recorded in Wielkopolskie Lake District, Kujavia, in the northern part of Polesie Lubelskie and in the eastern part of Masurian Lake District. In the rest of the country water deficit ranged from -50 to -119 mm.

Agricultural drought was stated in six voivodeships, as follows:

  • Lubuskie,
  • Zachodniopomorskie,
  • Pomorskie,
  • Wielkopolskie,
  • Dolnośląskie,
  • Warmińsko-mazurskie.

Agricultural drought affected nine of the monitored crops, as follows:

  • Maize for silage,
  • Potato,
  • Fruit shrubs,
  • Maize for grain,
  • Legumes,
  • Sugar beet,
  • Hops,
  • Ground vegetables,
  • Tobacco.

Table 1 presents the area affected by agricultural drought according to particular crops in the current sixty-day reporting period.

Table 1. Crops affected by agricultural drought in the period of July 10th – September 10th – the share (%) of gminas at risk of drought occurrence in Poland.

No.CropShare of local districts (gminas) at risk in Poland [%]Share of arable area at risk of agricultural drought [%] in Poland
1.Maize for silage1064.28
2.Potato1004.04
3.Fruit shrubs1004.04
4.Maize for grain933.75
5.Legumes532.14
6Sugar beet251.01
7.Hops240.97
8.Ground vegetables140.57
9.Tobacco20.08

Information on the area of arable land affected by drought in the current sixty-day reporting period is presented in table 2.

Table. 2. The share (%) of the area of arable land potentially affected by agricultural drought.

No.CropShare of arable area at risk of agricultural drought [%] in Poland
1.Fruit shrubs1.26
2.Potato1.21
3.Maize for silage1.15
4.Maize for grain0.96
5.Legumes0.39
6Sugar beet0.14
7.Hops0.11
8.Ground vegetables0.05
9.Tobacco0.01

In the twelfth reporting period, from July 11th to September 10th, 2019, the highest risk of agricultural drought occurred for maize for silage. Agricultural drought in this crop occurred in 106 local districts (gminas), which constitute 4.28% of all the local districts in Poland. In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 395. Agricultural drought occurred in 6 voivodeships, in the area of 1.15% of arable land. Table 3 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in maize for silage in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 3. Agricultural drought in maize for silage

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie827085.3726.79
2.zachodniopomorskie11365.310.88
3.pomorskie12364.880.14
4.wielkopolskie22673.100.72
5.dolnośląskie16931.780.11
6.warmińsko-mazurskie11610.860.14

Agricultural drought occurred also in potatoes. It was recorded in 100 local districts (gminas) in Poland (4.04% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 109. Drought occurred in 6 voivodeships, in the area of 1.21% of arable land. Table 4 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in potatoes in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 4. Agricultural drought in potatoes

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie827287.8034.11
2.zachodniopomorskie11376.191.23
3.pomorskie12375.690.14
4.wielkopolskie22673.100.79
5.dolnośląskie16952.960.13
6.warmińsko-mazurskie11621.720.24

In the current reporting period agricultural drought affected also fruit shrubs. It was recorded in 100 local districts (gminas) in Poland (4.04% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 267. Agricultural drought in fruit shrubs occurred in 6 voivodeships, in the area of 1.26% of arable land. Table 5 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in fruit shrubs in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 5. Agricultural drought in fruit shrubs.

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie827287.8035.40
2.zachodniopomorskie11376.191.33
3.pomorskie12375.690.14
4.wielkopolskie22673.100.79
5.dolnośląskie16952.960.13
6.warmińsko-mazurskie11621720.24

Agricultural drought affected also maize for grain. It was recorded in 93 local districts (gminas) in Poland (3.75% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of local districts affected by drought decreased by 348. Agricultural drought occurred in 6 voivodeships, in the area of 0.96% of arable land. Table 6 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in maize for grain in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 6. Agricultural drought in maize for grain

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie827085.3726.79
2.zachodniopomorskie11365.310.88
3.pomorskie12364.880.14
4.wielkopolskie22673.100.72
5.dolnośląskie16931.78011
6.warmińsko-mazurskie11610.860.14

Agricultural drought occurred also in legumes. It was recorded in 157 local districts (gminas) in Poland (6.34% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 104. Drought occurred in 4 voivodeships, in the area of 0.39% of arable land. Table 7 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in legumes in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 7. Agricultural drought in legumes

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie824554.8811.90
2.zachodniopomorskie11332.650.37
3.wielkopolskie22641.770.13
4.dolnośląskie16910.590.00

Agricultural drought affected sugar beet as well. It was recorded in 25 local districts (gminas) in Poland (1.01% of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 7. Drought occurred in 3 voivodeships, in the area of 0.14% of arable land. Table 8 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in sugar beet in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 8. Agricultural drought in sugar beet

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie822125.613.82
2.zachodniopomorskie11332.650.36
3.wielkopolskie22610.440.02

Agricultural drought affected also hops. It was recorded in 24 local districts (gminas) in Poland (0.97 % of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 16. Drought in hops occurred in 3 voivodeships, in the area of 0.11% of arable land. Table 9 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in hops in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 9. Agricultural drought in hops

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie822024.393.39
2.zachodniopomorskie11332.650.18
3.wielkopolskie22610.440.01

Agricultural drought was recorded also in ground vegetables. It occurred in 14 local districts (gminas) in Poland (0.57 % of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 26. Drought occurred in 3 voivodeships, in the area of 0.05% of arable land. Table 10 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in ground vegetables in particular voivodeships

Tab. 10. Agricultural drought in ground vegetables

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie821113.411.54
2.zachodniopomorskie11321.770.06
3.wielkopolskie22610.440.00

Agricultural drought affected also hops. It was recorded in 2 local districts (gminas) in Poland (0.08 % of all local districts in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by drought has decreased by 28. Drought in hops occurred in lubuskie voivodeships, in the area of 0.01% of arable land. Table 11 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in hops.

Tab. 11. Agricultural drought in tobacco

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie8222.440.27

In July the lowest temperatures occurred in the north-eastern part of Poland, ranging from 15 to 18°C, which was 0.5-1.5°C below the multiannual norm. In the south temperatures were higher, from18 to 20°C. The highest temperatures (slightly above 20°C) occurred in the Silesian Lowland. In the south-western regions of Poland, temperatures exceed the multiannual norm by 0.5-1.5°C.

August was warm this year. In the first decade, in south-western part of the country, the air temperatures ranged from 20 to more than 20.5°C. The lowest temperatures occurred in north-eastern regions, reaching from 16 to 17°C. The second decade of the month was warm in the majority of areas, with temperatures ranging from 18 do 20°C. Only in the north and south-western regions of the country it was slightly colder, from 16 to 18°C. The third decade of the month was the warmest. In the north-eastern regions of Poland temperatures ranged from 18 to 20°C, in the majority of areas from 20 to 22°C, and in the western part of the country from 22 to more than 22.5°C.

In the first decade of September temperature distribution varied across the country. In the western regions it was cold, from 14.5 to 16°C, whilst in the east of Poland temperatures were higher, ranging from 16 to more than 18.5°C.

In July precipitation was highly diversified. In the north of Poland, in Żarnowiec High Plain, Kashubian Coast and Kashubian Lake District, and in Hel Peninsula precipitation ranged from 70 to even more than 150 mm. Slightly lower values were recorded in Podlasie Lowland, from 70 to 120 mm. In all these areas the recorded precipitation constituted 100-140 of the multiannual norm. Relatively high precipitation was recorded in Silesian Upland and Carpathian Foothills, ranging from 70 to 130 mm. In the rest of the country precipitation was less intense, from 20 to 70 mm, and constituted 40-100% of the norm.

In the first decade of August, in central regions of the country precipitation was scarce, from below 5 to 15 mm. Similar values were recorded in the north of Poland in the second decade of the month. In the south and north during the first decade precipitation was higher, ranging from 15 to more than 50 mm. Similar situation was recorded in the south of Poland in the second decade of the month. In the third decade of August, in the vast areas of the country precipitation was lower than 10 mm. Only in the north and south of Poland it was slightly more abundant and ranged from 10 to 35 mm.

In the first decade of September very low precipitation values were recorded in the east of Poland, ranging from below 5 to 15 mm. In the majority of the country precipitation was higher, from 15 to 35 mm, and in the northern and southern parts of Poland from 35 to even more than 50 mm.

In the last four sixty-day reporting periods an increase of Climatic Water Balance has been recorded. Water deficiency has decreased significantly and hence the area affected by drought has also decreased, especially in the following crops: maize for silage and for grain, and fruit shrubs. In the current reporting period, in relation to the previous one, the number of gminas affected by agricultural drought has decreased for all the monitored crops, ranging from 7 in case of sugar beet to 395 in case of maize for silage. Still, agricultural drought has been reported for 9 of the monitored crop species or groups in 6 voivodeships.

Executive director

Prof. dr. hab. Wiesław Oleszek

Report prepared by:

Dr hab. Andrzej Doroszewski, prof. nadzw.

Dr hab. Rafał Pudełko

Dr Katarzyna Żyłowska

Dr Jan Jadczyszyn

Mgr Piotr Koza

Mgr Elżbieta Wróblewska

Mgr Agata Nowak