Communication report regarding the incidences of drought conditions in Poland

Year: 2018; period: 13 (21.VII - 20.IX)

The Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation – State Research Institute, in accordance with an Act of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development has developed the climatic water balance values for all 2478 Polish local districts (gminas) and, on the basis of soil categories, calculated the current risk of agricultural drought for the following crops: potato, sugar beet, rape and turnip rape.

In the thirteenth reporting period, i.e. from July 21st to September 20th, 2018, IUNG-PIB stated agricultural drought conditions in Poland.

In the western part of the country the area with low CWB values has again increased. The lowest CWB values were still recorded in Poznań and the surrounding area, in Lubusz Land and Silesian Lowland, reaching from -240 to -269 mm. Considerable water deficiency ranging from -200 to -239 mm was recorded in Szczecińska and Wielkopolska Lowlands, and Trzebnickie Hills. In the rest of the country water deficiency ranged from -170 to 199 mm. In the east of Poland water deficiency was lower and ranged from -100 to -159 mm, apart from Siedlecka Upland, Chełmińskie and Stargardzkie Lake Districts, and Żuławy, where it ranged from 160 to 179 mm.

In the current reporting period drought occurs in the following monitored crops:

  • Potato,
  • Rape and turnip rape,
  • Sugar beet.

The number of all local districts (gminas) in Poland at risk of agricultural drought (%) is presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Number of local districts (gminas) at risk of agricultural drought and the share of the area at risk in the country (%).

No.Crop Number of local districts (gminas) at riskShare of local districts (gminas) at risk in Poland [%]
1.Potato170068.60
2.Rape and turnip rape140756.78
3.Sugar beet103841.89

The potential area at risk of agricultural drought in Poland is shown in Table 2.

Table 2. The area at risk of agricultural drought according to crops

No.CropThe arable area at risk of agricultural drought [%]
1.Ziemniak49.09
2.Rzepak i rzepik26.93
3.Burak cukrowy23.01

In the thirteenth reporting period, from July 21st to September 20th 2018, the highest risk of agricultural drought occurred for potatoes. In Poland agricultural drought in potatoes was recorded in 14 voivodeships, in 1700 local districts (gminas), i.e. 68.6% of all the local districts in Poland, in the area of 49.09% of arable land. In relation to the previous reporting period, both the number of local districts and the area of arable land at risk have increased by 45.76 and 36.06%, respectively.

Detailed data on drought occurrence in potatoes in particular voivodeships are presented in table 3.

Table 3. Agricultural drought in potatoes

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.kujawsko-pomorskie144144100.0090.32
2.lubuskie8282100.0099.69
3.opolskie7171100.0053.52
4.wielkopolskie226226100.0099.95
5.zachodniopomorskie114114100.0097.62
6.łódzkie17717598.8773.14
7.dolnośląskie16916798.8263.94
8.pomorskie12312097.5657.81
9.mazowieckie31423775.4836.23
10.śląskie16711367.6635.62
11.podlaskie1186857.6317.35
12.lubelskie21311955.8720.96
13.warmińsko-mazurskie1164034.486.26
14.świętokrzyskie1022423.538.87
15.małopolskie18200.000.00
16.podkarpackie16000.000.00

In the current reporting period a risk of drought was also recorded for rape and turnip rape. It occurred in 14 voivodeships, in 1407 local districts (gminas), i.e. 56.78% of all local districts in the country, in the area of 26.93% of arable land.

Detailed data on drought occurrence in rape and turnip rape in particular voivodeships are presented in table 4.

Table 4. Agricultural drought in rape and turnip rape

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.kujawsko-pomorskie144144100.0055.17
2.lubuskie8282100.0051.76
3.opolskie7171100.0031.45
4.wielkopolskie226226100.0067.45
5.zachodniopomorskie114114100.0066.87
6.pomorskie12311996.7534.17
7.dolnośląskie16915893.4931.10
8.łódzkie17716090.4029.45
9.śląskie1678249.1015.15
10.mazowieckie31414445.8614.35
11.lubelskie2136530.529.38
12.warmińsko-mazurskie1162319.833.03
13.świętokrzyskie102109.801.97
14.podlaskie11897.631.18
15.małopolskie18200.000.00
16.podkarpackie16000.000.00

In this reporting period agricultural drought occurred also in sugar beet. It was recorded in 12 voivodeships, in 1038 local district (gminas), i.e. 41.89% of all local districts in the country, in the area of 23.01% of arable land. In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of local districts as well as the area affected by drought have grown by 31.63% and 19.69%, respectively.

Detailed data on drought occurrence in sugar beet are presented in table 5.

Table 5. Agricultural drought in sugar beet

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.kujawsko-pomorskie144144100.0055.80
2.lubuskie8282100.0053.08
3.opolskie7171100.0030.74
4.wielkopolskie226226100.0067.75
5.zachodniopomorskie114114100.0068.03
6.dolnośląskie16913881.6632.22
7.pomorskie1236653.6614.46
8.łódzkie1779352.5419.13
9.mazowieckie3146019.115.92
10.śląskie1671911.382.10
11.lubelskie2132210.333.12
12.warmińsko-mazurskie11632.590.28
13.małopolskie18200.000.00
14.podkarpackie16000.000.00
15.podlaskie11800.000.00
16.świętokrzyskie10200.000.00

August was particularly warm this year. The highest temperatures were recorded in Lubusz Land. The mean temperature in that area exceeded 22.5°C and it was 4°C higher than the multiannual norm. The further to the east the lower was the temperature, reaching 18°C in the eastern part of the country. In the majority of the country temperatures exceeded the multiannual norm by 2-3°C.

The first and second decade of September were very warm. The highest temperatures were recorded in the south-west of Poland, ranging from 18 to 20°C. The further to the north-east the lower was the temperature, reaching 16°C in the north-eastern part of the country. In the majority of Poland temperature ranged from 16 to 18°C.

In August precipitation was very scarce in the western part of the country, below 20 mm or even 10 mm in the Poznań region. It was lower than the multiannual norm by 70%. In the area from Lesser Poland Upland, through Masovian Lowland and Masurian Lake District precipitation was relatively high, ranging from 50 to more than 120 mm and constituting 100-130% of the multiannual norm. In the majority of areas precipitation was low, ranging from 20 to 50 mm, which was 30-100% of the norm.

In the first decade of September the largest area with low precipitation values, not exceeding 10 mm or at times even below 5 mm was recorded in Lubusz Land and Greater Poland Lowland. Slightly higher precipitation values were recorded in the eastern regions. The highest precipitation (20 to more than 50 mm) was recorded in Lesser Poland Upland, Silesian Beskids, and in the north-eastern part of Poland. In the majority of the country precipitation was scarce, ranging from 10 to 20 mm.

In the second decade of September precipitation values were even lower. In the northern part of the country they ranged from 5 to 10 mm or even less. In the south of Poland precipitation ranged from 10 to 25 mm.

Weather conditions in the monitored period again have caused an increase of water deficiency in the western part of the country, and led to agricultural drought in the monitored crops. The number of local districts (gminas) affected by drought has increased from 566 to 1700 and the affected area has grown by 36.06%. The recorded water deficiency results in yield reduction by at least 20% in relation to the yield obtained in average weather conditions. In this reporting period, particularly adverse weather conditions causing agricultural drought still occurred in wielkopolskie, zachodniopomorskie, lubuskie, dolnośląskie, kujawsko-pomorskie, opolskie, łódzkie and pomorskie voivodeships.

Executive Director

Prof. dr hab. Wiesław Aleksander Oleszek

Report prepared by:

Dr hab. Andrzej Doroszewski, prof. nadzw.

Dr hab. Rafał Pudełko

Dr Katarzyna Żyłowska

Mgr Piotr Koza

Mgr Elżbieta Wróblewska