Comment from Agrometeorologist

Communication report regarding the incidences of drought conditions in Poland

The Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation – State Research Institute, in accordance with an Act of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development has developed the climatic water balance values for all 2477 Polish municipalities (gminas) and, based on soil categories, calculated the current risk of agricultural drought.

In the second reporting period, i.e. from April 1st to May 31st, 2020, IUNG-PIB stated agricultural drought conditions in Poland.

The average of Climatic Water Balance values, which are the basis for assessing the risk of agricultural drought, was negative and equalled -75 mm. In relation to the previous sixty-day reporting period (March 21st – May 20th), it has increased by 25 mm.

The largest water deficit in the period from April 1st to May 31st was recorded in the area of Lake Districts: Myślibórz, Lubuskie, and Wielkopolskie, as well as in the Gorzów Plain, where it ranged between -150 to -169 mm. Considerable water shortages, from -120 to -149 mm, were also recorded in Kuyavia, and in the western part of the Pomeranian Lake District. In large areas of the country water deficit ranged between -70 and -119 mm.

Whereas the highest CWB values (and hence the lowest water deficit) were recorded in the Carpathian Foothills, Western Beskids, Podlasie Lowland and in the southern part of the Masurian Lake District, ranging from -50 to -119 mm.

Agricultural drought was stated in the following voivodeships:

  • Lubuskie,
  • Zachodniopomorskie,
  • Kujawsko-pomorskie,
  • Wielkopolskie,
  • Pomorskie,
  • Łódzkie,
  • Dolnośląskie,
  • Opolskie,
  • Lubelskie.

Agricultural drought affected the following crops:

  • Spring cereals,
  • Winter cereals,
  • Strawberries,
  • Fruit shrubs,
  • Fruit trees.

In the second reporting period, from April 1st t° May 31st, 2020, the highest risk of agricultural drought occurred for spring cereals. Agricultural drought in this crop was recorded in 596 gminas (24.06% of all gminas in Poland). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by agricultural drought has decreased by 237, which constitutes 9.57% of all gminas in Poland. Drought occurred in 9 voivodeships, in the area of 8.54% of arable land (decrease by 5 voivodeships and 1.6% of arable land). Table 1 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in spring cereals in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 1. Agricultural drought in spring cereals

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie8282100.0063.29
2.zachodniopomorskie113105 92.9224.20
3.kujawsko-pomorskie144113 78.4712.31
4.wielkopolskie226169 74.7837.21
5.pomorskie12335 28.462.49
6.łódzkie17734 19.212.59
7.dolnośląskie16930 17.752.31
8.opolskie7110 14.080.13
9lubelskie21318 8.450.48

Agricultural drought occurred also in winter cereals. It was recorded in 475 gminas in Poland (19.18% of all gminas in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by agricultural drought has decreased by 201, which constitutes 8.11% of all gminas in Poland. Agricultural drought occurred in 9 voivodeships, in the area of 5.3% of arable land (decrease by 2.42% in relation to the previous reporting period). Table 2 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in winter cereals in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 2. Agricultural drought in winter cereals

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie8282100.0042.91
2.zachodniopomorskie11389 78.7613.32
3.kujawsko-pomorskie144102 70.838.83
4.wielkopolskie226150 66.3723.89
5.pomorskie12322 17.890.69
6.dolnośląskie16919 11.241.48
7.opolskie714 5.630.01
8.lubelskie2134 1.880.08
9łódzkie1773 1.690.03

Agricultural drought occurred also in strawberries. It was recorded in 393 gminas in Poland (15.87% of all gminas in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by agricultural drought has decreased by 127, which constitutes 5.2% of all gminas in Poland. Drought conditions were stated in 7 voivodeships, in the area of 4.36% of arable land (decrease by 4 voivodeships and 2.19% of arable land). Table 3 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in strawberries in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 3. Agricultural drought in strawberries

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie8282100.0039.78
2.wielkopolskie226135 59.7320.13
3.kujawsko-pomorskie14485 59.036.00
4.zachodniopomorskie11365 57.529.54
5.dolnośląskie16915 8.881.05
6.pomorskie1238 6.500.18
7.lubelskie2133 1.410.02

Agricultural drought affected also fruit shrubs. It was recorded in 204 gminas in Poland (8.24% of all gminas in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by agricultural drought has increased by 38, which constitutes 1.54% of all gminas in Poland. Agricultural drought occurred in 6 voivodeships, in the area of 1.33% of arable land. Table 4 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in fruit shrubs in particular voivodeships

Tab. 4. Agricultural drought in fruit shrubs

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie827490.2416.73
2.wielkopolskie2268939.386.20
3.zachodniopomorskie1133026.552.47
4.dolnośląskie16963.550.17
5.kujawsko-pomorskie14442.780.13
6.pomorskie12310.810.00

Agricultural drought affected also fruit trees. It was recorded in 1 gmina in Poland (0.04% of all gminas in the country). Table 5 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in fruit trees.

Tab. 5. Agricultural drought in fruit trees

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.zachodniopomorskie11310.880.00

April was warm this year, with temperatures ranging from 6 to more than 10°C. The highest values were recorded in the south-western part of the country (from 9 to more than 10°C, which exceeded the norm by 1 to more than 1.5°C). The further north-east, the lower was the temperature, ranging between 6-8°C. In the vast areas of the country temperatures in April exceeded the multiannual norm by 0.5 to 1°C. The sunshine duration was considerable in this month as well, reaching even more than 300h in the southern part of the country, which is 100% more than the multiannual norm, and more than 270h in north-eastern regions, which is 70% more than the norm. Such solar-thermal conditions led to exceptionally high evapotranspiration.

In the first decade of May, in the vast areas of the country temperatures ranged from 11 to 13°C. It was colder in the north and south of Poland, with temperatures between 9 and 11°C, and even lower in the Carpathian Foothills: only 8-9°C. In the second decade of the month it was still cool in the majority of areas, with temperatures falling between 9 and 10.5°C. The lowest temperatures were recorded in the northern regions, with values ranging between 8 and 9°C, and the highest in the south-western part of Poland and the Sandomierz Basin: from 11°C to more than 11.5°C. In the third decade of May temperatures were considerably low throughout the country, ranging from 11 to more than 13°C, but only 8-11°C in the Sudetes and Carpathian Foothills.

In April precipitation was scarce, particularly in the north of Poland (below 10 mm) where it constituted from below 10 to 20% of the multiannual norm. The further south, the higher precipitation occurred, ranging from 10 to more than 30 mm and constituting 20 to more than 40% of the norm.

In May precipitation was highly diversified. In the first decade of the month the highest precipitation values were recorded in the east of Poland, ranging from 20 to 50 mm, with the exception of Podlasie, where they ranged from 10 to 20 mm. Similar values were recorded in the vast majority of the country. The lowest precipitation, between 5 and 10 mm, occurred in the north-western part of Poland. In the second decade of May precipitation was still very scarce, from 5 to 15 mm. Similar values were recorded in the following voivodeships: lubelskie, świętokrzyskie, śląskie and opolskie. Relatively intense rainfalls (15-35 mm) occurred in the area extending from the Sudetes, through the Silesian, Greater Poland, and Masovian Lowlands, to the Masurian Lake District. In this period, the highest precipitation occurred in the north-eastern part of the country, reaching from 35 to more than 50 mm.

Precipitation was highly diversified throughout Poland in the third decade of the month, ranging from very low values in the north of the country (from below 5 to 20 mm) to very high (above 50 mm) in the south-eastern regions of Poland. The highest precipitation values, above 100 mm, were recorded in the Ostrawska and Oświęcimska Basins, Western Beskidian Foothills and Western Beskids.

As stated by IUNG-PIB, water deficiency in crops in the period of April 1st to May 31st has decreased in relation to the previous reporting period by 10-25 mm. The area affected by agricultural drought reduced for spring and winter cereals, strawberries and fruit trees, but increased in case of fruit shrubs.

Lack of sufficient rainfall that occurred in April resulted in a considerable water deficiency in soil, especially in the north-western part of Poland. Due to water shortage, agricultural drought is still recorded in spring and winter crops, strawberries, fruit shrubs and to a lesser extent in fruit trees. However, water deficiency has considerably decreased in the following voivodeships: łódzkie, lubelskie, świętokrzyskie, śląskie, małopolskie and podlaskie, resulting in a significant improvement of conditions for crop production.

Executive Director

Prof. dr hab. Wiesław Oleszek

Report prepared by: Dr hab. Andrzej Doroszewski, prof. IUNG-PIB, Dr hab. Rafał Pudełko, Dr Katarzyna Żyłowska, Dr Jan Jadczyszyn, Mgr Piotr Koza, Mgr Elżbieta Wróblewska

Contact
Institute of Soil Science and Plants Cultivation
State Research Institute
ul. Czartoryskich 8, 24-100 Puławy

Zakład Agrometeorologii i Zastosowań Informatyki
phone: 81 4786 752

Zakład Gleboznawstwa Erozji i Ochrony Gruntów
phone: 81 4786 779

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Opracowanie IUNG-PIB 2020 na zlecenie Misterstwa Rolnictwa i Rozwoju Wsi