Comment from Agrometeorologist

Communication report regarding the incidences of drought conditions in Poland

The Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation – State Research Institute, in accordance with the Act of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development has developed the climatic water balance values for all 2477 Polish municipalities (gminas) and, based on soil categories, calculated the current risk of agricultural drought.

In the eleventh reporting period, i.e. from July 1st t° August 31st, 2020, the average of Climatic Water Balance values, which are the basis for assessing the risk of agricultural drought, was negative and equalled -76 mm. In the analysed period, it has increased by 3 mm in relation to the previous reporting period (June 21st – August 20th) and by 24 mm in relation to the first period (March 21st – May 20th).

The largest water deficit, ranging from -160 to -209 mm, was recorded in the area of Południowowielkopolska Lowland. In relation to the previous reporting period (June 21st – August 20th), it has decreased by 10 mm. Considerable water shortages, from -160 to -199 mm, were also recorded in the Zachodniopomorskie Lake District.

In the Silesian and Central Poland Lowlands water deficit reached from -160 to -189 mm. In the vast areas of the country values ranged between -50 and -159 mm.

Based on the current humidity conditions, IUNG-PIB states agricultural drought in the area of Poland.

Agricultural drought was stated in the following voivodeships:

  • Wielkopolskie,
  • Dolnośląskie,
  • Zachodniopomorskie,
  • Pomorskie,
  • Świętokrzyskie,
  • Łódzkie,
  • Opolskie,
  • Lubelskie,
  • Podkarpackie,
  • Lubuskie,
  • Warmińsko-mazurskie,
  • Kujawsko-pomorskie,
  • Mazowieckie,
  • Małopolskie,
  • Podlaskie,
  • Śląskie.

Agricultural drought affected the following crops:

  • Maize for silage,
  • Maize for grain,
  • Fruit shrubs,
  • Potato,
  • Legumes,
  • Hops,
  • Ground vegetables,
  • Sugar beet,
  • Tobacco.

In the eleventh reporting period, from July 1st t° August 31st, 2020, the highest risk of agricultural drought occurred for maize for silage. Agricultural drought in this crop was recorded in 440 gminas (17.76% of all gminas in Poland). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by agricultural drought has decreased by 430, which constitutes a decrease of 17.36%.

Drought in maize for silage occurred in all the voivodeships, in the area of 1.65% of arable land (decrease of 6.26%). Table 1 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in maize for silage in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 1. Agricultural drought in maize for silage

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.wielkopolskie22610546.466.19
2.dolnośląskie1696337.282.00
3.zachodniopomorskie1134035.403.44
4.pomorskie1233931.711.46
5.świętokrzyskie1022928.430.91
6.łódzkie1774424.864.14
7.opolskie711622.540.93
8.lubelskie2133516.430.95
9.podkarpackie1602113.121.13
10.lubuskie821012.201.64
11.warmińsko-mazurskie116108.620.12
12.kujawsko-pomorskie14464.170.06
13.mazowieckie314123.820.13
14.małopolskie18263.300.05
15.podlaskie11821.690.02
16.śląskie16721.200.11

In this reporting period agricultural drought occurred also in maize for grain. It was recorded in 358 gminas in Poland (14.45% of all gminas in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by agricultural drought has decreased by 468, which constitutes a decrease of 18.90%.

Drought in maize for grain occurred in all the voivodeships, in the area of 1.26% of arable land (decrease of 5.92%). Table 2 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in maize for grain in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 2. Agricultural drought in maize for grain

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.wielkopolskie2269341.155.07
2.zachodniopomorskie1133631.862.82
3.dolnośląskie1695230.771.51
4.pomorskie1233326.830.81
5.łódzkie1773821.473.16
6.świętokrzyskie1021817.650.60
7.opolskie711216.900.68
8.lubelskie2132813.150.58
9.podkarpackie1601811.250.86
10.lubuskie8289.761.24
11.warmińsko-mazurskie11676.030.08
12.mazowieckie31482.550.06
13.małopolskie18231.650.02
14.kujawsko-pomorskie14421.390.03
15.podlaskie11810.850.00
16.śląskie16710.600.09

In the eleventh reporting period agricultural drought affected also fruit shrubs. It was recorded in 276 gminas in Poland (11.14% of all gminas in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by agricultural drought has decreased by 368, which constitutes a decrease of 14.89%.

Agricultural drought in fruit shrubs occurred in 15 voivodeships, in the area of 0.99% of arable land (decrease of 6.00%). Table 3 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in fruit shrubs in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 3. Agricultural drought in fruit shrubs

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.wielkopolskie2267633.634.62
2.zachodniopomorskie1132824.782.33
3.dolnośląskie1694023.671.04
4.opolskie711216.900.78
5.łódzkie1772916.382.20
6.pomorskie1231915.450.21
7.świętokrzyskie1021413.730.33
8.podkarpackie1601610.000.53
9.lubelskie213219.860.28
10.lubuskie8278.540.99
11.warmińsko-mazurskie11665.170.02
12.kujawsko-pomorskie14421.390.02
13.małopolskie18221.100.00
14.mazowieckie31430.960.01
15.śląskie16710.600.03

Agricultural drought affected also potatoes. It was recorded in 128 gminas in Poland (5.17% of all gminas in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by agricultural drought has decreased by 235, which constitutes a decrease of 9.48%.

Agricultural drought in potatoes occurred in 11 voivodeships in the area of 0.39% of arable land (decrease of 1.88 of arable land). Table 4 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in potatoes in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 4. Agricultural drought in potatoes

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.wielkopolskie2264319.03224
2.opolskie71912.680.20
3.zachodniopomorskie1131311.500.79
4.dolnośląskie1691710.060.33
5.łódzkie177158.470.74
6.lubuskie8256.100.31
7.podkarpackie16085.000.09
8.świętokrzyskie10254.900.05
9.pomorskie12354.070.01
10.lubelskie21373.290.05
11.mazowieckie31410.320.00

Agricultural drought occurred in legumes as well. It was recorded in 105 gminas in Poland (4.24% of all gminas in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by agricultural drought has decreased by 169, i.e. by 17.56%.

Agricultural drought in legumes occurred in 10 voivodeships in the area of 0.3% of arable land (decrease of 4.03%). Table 5 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in legumes in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 5. Agricultural drought in legumes

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.wielkopolskie2263716.371.91
2.zachodniopomorskie1131311.500.64
3.łódzkie177158.470.47
4.opolskie7168.450.14
5.dolnośląskie169148.280.20
6.lubuskie8244.880.21
7.podkarpackie16053.120.06
8.świętokrzyskie10232.940.02
9.lubelskie21362.820.02
10.pomorskie12321.630.00

Agricultural drought occurred in hops. It was recorded in 11 gminas in Poland (0.44% of all gminas in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by agricultural drought has decreased by 179, which constitutes a decrease of 7.23%.

Agricultural drought in hops occurred in 3 voivodeships in the area of 0.02% of arable land. Table 6 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in hops in particular voivodeships

Tab. 6. Agricultural drought in hops

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.wielkopolskie22683.540.20
2.zachodniopomorskie11321.770.01
3.opolskie7111.410.02

Agricultural drought occurred also in ground vegetables. It was recorded in 10 gminas in Poland (0.04% of all gminas in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by agricultural drought has decreased by 265, i.e. by 10.34%.

Agricultural drought in ground vegetables occurred in 3 voivodeships, in the area of 0.02% of arable land (decrease of 1.26% in relation to the previous reporting period). Table 7 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in ground vegetables in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 7. Agricultural drought in ground vegetables

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.wielkopolskie22673.100.17
2.zachodniopomorskie11321.770.00
3.opolskie7111.410.02

Agricultural drought affected also sugar beets. It was recorded in 7 gminas in Poland (0.28% of all gminas in the country), in 3 voivodeships, in the area of 0.01% of arable land. Table 8 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in sugar beets.

Tab. 8. Agricultural drought in sugar beets

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.opolskie7122.820.02
2.wielkopolskie22641.770.09
3.zachodniopomorskie11310.880.00

Agricultural drought affected also tobacco. It was recorded in 4 gminas in Poland (0.16% of all gminas in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by agricultural drought has decreased by 187, which constitutes a decrease of 7.55%.

Agricultural drought in tobacco occurred in 2 voivodeships. Table 9 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in tobacco in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 9. Agricultural drought in tobacco

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.opolskie7111.410.01
2.wielkopolskie22631.330.03

July was quite cool this year, especially in the northwestern and some southern parts of the country, where temperatures were ca. 0.5°C lower than the multiannual norm. In the rest of the country temperatures remained within the norm. The highest values were recorded in the south and southwest of Poland, exceeding 19°C. In the majority of areas, temperatures ranged from 17 to 19°C, only in the north it was slightly colder, 15-16°C.

The first and second decade of August were warm. In the first decade, in the north and south of Poland temperatures ranged from 18 to 20°C, same as in the second decade in the east. In the rest of Poland temperatures ranged from 20 to 22°C. In the third decade temperature, the highest temperature ranging from 18.5 to more than 20.5°C occurred in the south of Poland, while in the northern and northeastern regions it ranged from 16.5 to 18°C. The lowest temperatures, below 16°C, were recorded in the region of the Western Sudetes.

In July, precipitation varied across the country. Particularly scarce precipitation, below 30 mm, occurred in the southwestern and northeastern regions and constituted below 40% of the multiannual norm. Whereas the highest precipitation values (above 150 mm) were recorded in the south of Poland, and slightly lower values, from 60 to 90 mm, in the north, constituting 90-110% of the norm. In the majority of areas precipitation ranged from 30 to 60 mm (40-90% of the norm).

In the first decade of August, the lowest precipitation values were recorded in the northwestern and southeastern parts of Poland, ranging from 5 to 15 mm, or even no precipitation occurred. In between those areas, precipitation was more intense, from 15 to 50 mm. In the second decade of the month, in the north of Poland precipitation was very scarce (up to 5mm) or none, whereas in the south precipitation values were higher, from 5 to more than 50 mm, but areas with no precipitation occurred as well. In the third decade of August, the highest precipitation values were recorded in the Masovian and Podlasie Lowlands, and in the Slovincian Coastland, ranging from 50 to more than 75 mm. In the region of the Lesser Poland Upland and the Sandomierz Basin precipitation was the lowest, ranging from 25 mm to 35 mm. In the rest of the country precipitation ranged from 35 to 50 mm.

The largest crop water deficit in the period of July 1st - August 31st occurred in the Wielkopolskie and Zachodniopomorskie voivodeships. Whereas considerable excess of water was still recorded in the southern regions of the voivodeships: Opolskie, Śląskie, Małopolskie, Podkarpackie, Lubelskie, Mazowieckie, and Lubuskie.

The area affected by agricultural drought has decreased in relation to the previous reporting period in the following crops:

  • Maize for silage,
  • Maize for grain,
  • Fruit shrubs,
  • Potato,
  • Legumes,
  • Hops,
  • Ground vegetables,
  • Sugar beet,
  • Tobacco.

Lack of sufficient precipitation is still recorded in the northwestern part of Poland, leading to a considerable water deficit in that area. Due to that fact, agricultural drought is stated in the following voivodeships: Wielkopolskie, Zachodniopomorskie, Dolnośląskie, Łódzkie, and Opolskie. To a lesser extent, water deficit is also affecting crops in: Lubelskie, Lubuskie, Świętokrzyskie, Pomorskie, and Podkarpackie.

Executive Director

Prof. dr hab. Wiesław Oleszek

Report prepared by: Dr hab. Andrzej Doroszewski, prof. IUNG-PIB, Dr hab. Rafał Pudełko, Dr Katarzyna Żyłowska, Dr Jan Jadczyszyn, Mgr Piotr Koza, Mgr Elżbieta Wróblewska, Mgr Agata Ścibior

Contact
Institute of Soil Science and Plants Cultivation
State Research Institute
ul. Czartoryskich 8, 24-100 Puławy

Zakład Agrometeorologii i Zastosowań Informatyki
phone: 81 4786 752

Zakład Gleboznawstwa Erozji i Ochrony Gruntów
phone: 81 4786 779

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