Comment from Agrometeorologist

Communication report regarding the incidences of drought conditions in Poland

The Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation – State Research Institute, in accordance with the Act of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development has developed the climatic water balance values for all 2477 Polish municipalities (gminas) and, based on soil categories, calculated the current risk of agricultural drought.

In the seventh reporting period, i.e. from May 21st to July 20th, 2020, the average of Climatic Water Balance values, which are the basis for assessing the risk of agricultural drought, was positive and equalled 28 mm. In the analysed period it has increased by 4 mm in relation to the previous reporting period (May 11th – July 10th) and by 128 mm in relation to the first reporting period (March 21st – May 20th).

The largest water deficit, ranging from -160 to -189 mm, was still recorded in the area of Szczecin Coastland (Uznam, Wolin, Plains: Wkrzańska, Wełtyńska, Pyrzycka, and the Bukowe Hills), where it has decreased in relation to the previous reporting period (May 11th – July 10th) by 10 mm. Considerable water shortages, from -120 to -159 mm, were still recorded in the western part of the Pomeranian and Greater Poland Lake Districts, while in the eastern part of these regions water deficit ranged from -50 to -119 mm. In the rest of the country no crop water deficit was recorded.

Based on the current humidity conditions, IUNG-PIB states agricultural drought in the area of Poland.

Agricultural drought was stated in the following voivodeships:

  • Zachodniopomorskie,
  • Wielkopolskie,
  • Lubuskie,
  • Pomorskie,
  • Warmińsko-mazurskie,
  • Dolnośląskie.

Agricultural drought affected the following crops:

  • Maize for grain,
  • Maize for silage,
  • Fruit shrubs,
  • Legumes,
  • Spring cereals,
  • Winter cereals,
  • Ground vegetables,
  • Tobacco,
  • Strawberries,
  • Fruit trees.

In the seventh reporting period, from May 21st to July 20th, 2020, the highest risk of agricultural drought occurred for maize for grain. Agricultural drought in this crop was recorded in 120 gminas (4.84% of all gminas in Poland). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by agricultural drought has increased by 59, which constitutes an increase of 2.38%.

Drought in maize for grain occurred in 6 voivodeships, in the area of 0.58% of arable land (increase of 0.35%). Table 1 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in maize for grain in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 1. Agricultural drought in maize for grain

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.zachodniopomorskie1137566.378.62
2.wielkopolskie226229.730.56
3.lubuskie8278.540.66
4.pomorskie123108.130.08
5.warmińsko-mazurskie11632.590.01
6.dolnośląskie16931.780.00

Agricultural drought occurred also in maize for silage. It was recorded in 120 gminas in Poland (4.84% of all gminas in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by agricultural drought has increased by 59, i.e. by 2.38%.

Drought in maize for silage occurred in 6 voivodeships, in the area of 0.58% of arable land (increase of 0.35%). Table 2 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in maize for silage in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 2. Agricultural drought in maize for silage

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.zachodniopomorskie1137566.378.62
2.wielkopolskie226229.730.56
3.lubuskie8278.540.66
4.pomorskie123108.130.08
5.warmińsko-mazurskie11632.590.01
6.dolnośląskie16931.780.00

In the seventh reporting period agricultural drought affected also fruit shrubs. It was recorded in 83 gminas in Poland (3.35% of all gminas in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by agricultural drought has increased by 0.44%.

Agricultural drought in fruit shrubs occurred in 5 voivodeships, in the area of 0.69% of arable land (increase of 0.3% of arable land). Table 3 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in fruit shrubs in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 3. Agricultural drought in fruit shrubs

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.zachodniopomorskie1136557.5211.63
2.lubuskie8256.100.29
3.wielkopolskie22693.980.18
4.warmińsko-mazurskie11621.720.00
5.pomorskie12321.630.00

Agricultural drought occurred in legumes as well. It was recorded in 63 gminas in Poland (2.54% of all gminas in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by agricultural drought has increased by 25, i.e. by 1.01%.

Agricultural drought in legumes occurred in 5 voivodeships in the area of 0.28% of arable land (increase of 0.16%). Table 4 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in legumes in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 4. Agricultural drought in legumes

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.zachodniopomorskie1135145.134.89
2.lubuskie8233.660.06
3.wielkopolskie22652.210.02
4.warmińsko-mazurskie11621.720.00
5.pomorskie12321.630.00

In the current reporting period agricultural drought affected also spring cereals. It was recorded in 49 gminas in Poland (1.98% of all gminas in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by agricultural drought has decreased by 25, which constitutes a decrease of 1.01%.

Agricultural drought in spring cereals occurred in 4 voivodeships in the area of 0.21% of arable land, which constitutes a decrease of 0.18% in relation to the previous reporting period. Table 5 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in spring cereals in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 5. Agricultural drought in spring cereals

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.zachodniopomorskie1134438.943.60
2.lubuskie8222.440.04
3.pomorskie12321.630.00
4.warmińsko-mazurskie11610.860.00

Agricultural drought occurred also in winter cereals. It was recorded in 24 gminas in Poland (0.97% of all gminas in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by agricultural drought has decreased by 6, i.e. by 0.24%.

Agricultural drought in winter cereals occurred in 2 voivodeships, in the area of 0.05% of arable land (decrease of 0.05% in relation to the previous reporting period). Table 6 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in winter cereals in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 6. Agricultural drought in winter cereals

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.zachodniopomorskie1132219.470.88
2.lubuskie8222.440.02

Agricultural drought occurred also in ground vegetables. It was recorded in 11 gminas in Poland (0.44% of all gminas in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by agricultural drought has increased by 10, i.e. by 0.4%.

Agricultural drought in ground vegetables occurred in the area of 0.02% of arable land (decrease of 0.05% in relation to the previous reporting period). Table 7 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in ground vegetables in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 7. Agricultural drought in ground vegetables

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.zachodniopomorskie11397.960.35
2.lubuskie8222.440.01

In the current reporting period agricultural drought affected also tobacco. It was recorded in 10 gminas in Poland (0.4% of all gminas in the country), in the area of 0.01% of arable land. Table 8 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in tobacco in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 8. Agricultural drought in tobacco

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.zachodniopomorskie11387.080.23
2.lubuskie8222.440.01

Agricultural drought occurred in strawberries as well. It was recorded in 4 gminas in Poland (0.16% of all gminas in the country). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of gminas affected by agricultural drought has decreased by 1, i.e. by 0.04%.

Agricultural drought in strawberries occurred in 2 voivodeships. Table 9 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in strawberries in particular voivodeships.

Tab. 9. Agricultural drought in strawberries

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie8222.440.01
2.zachodniopomorskie11321.770.01

Agricultural drought occurred also in fruit trees. It was recorded in 1 gmina in Poland (0.04% of all gminas in the country). Table 10 presents detailed data on drought occurrence in fruit trees.

Tab. 10. Agricultural drought in fruit trees

No.VoivodeshipNumber of local districtsNumber of local districts at riskShare of local districts at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.lubuskie8211.220.00

May was cold this year. The lowest temperatures were recorded in the north of Poland, ranging between 9 and 11°C, whereas the highest temperatures occurred in the Lubusz Land, exceeding 12°C. In the majority of Poland temperatures ranged from 11 to 12°C. In the vast areas of the country temperatures in May were lower than the multiannual norm by 1-2.5°C, or even more than 2.5°C: in the Polish Uplands, Masovia, and Warmia-Masuria.

In the first and second decade of June, the highest temperatures (from 14 to 16°C in the 1st and from 19.5 to more than 20.5°C in the 2nd decade) were recorded in the vast area of Central Poland. In the south and north of the country it was colder, from 12 to 14°C in the first and from 16 to 19.5°C in the second decade. The third decade of the month was the warmest in the eastern regions, with temperatures ranging from 20 to more than 20.5°C. In the majority of areas, the recorded temperatures ranged from 19 to 20°C. The lowest recorded temperatures occurred in the south-western part of Poland: 16-19°C.

The first decade of July was highly diversified in terms of temperature distribution, with lower temperatures in the north (16-18.5°C) and higher in the south (18.5°C to more than 20°C). In the second decade of the month the lowest temperatures were recorded in the south of Poland, reaching up to 16.5°C. The highest values exceeding 18°C were recorded in Lubuskie voivodeship, in Masovia and the Greater Poland Lake District.

In May precipitation was highly diversified. The highest precipitation was recorded in eastern and southern regions of the country, ranging from 60 to 150mm and constituting 100-160% of the multiannual norm. The lowest precipitation, between 30 and 60 mm, occurred in the north-western part of Poland, where it constituted 50-100% of the norm.

In June precipitation was intense in vast areas of the country throughout the month, ranging from 15 to 100m (in the second and third decade even exceeding 100m). However, in the first and second decade of the month, in the north-western part of the country precipitation was less intense, from less than 5 to 15 mm. Similar precipitation values were recorded in the Silesian, Kraków-Częstochowa and Małopolska Uplands in the first decade, and in Podlasie Lowland in the second decade of the month.

In the first decade of July precipitation was highly diversified as well: small but numerous areas with heavy storms and rainfalls ranging from 20 to 50 mm occurred throughout Poland, accompanied by scarce precipitation (up to 10 mm) in south-western regions of the country. In the second decade of the month the highest precipitation values ranging from 30 to more than 100 mm were recorded in the south of the country, and in the Iława and Chełmno-Dobrzyń Lake Districts. The lowest precipitation values, below 15 mm, were recorded in the Lubusz Land, Szczecin Lowland, Gdańsk Lake District, eastern part of the Masurian Lake District and Podlasie Lowland.

As stated by IUNG-PIB, the largest crop water deficit in the period of May 21st - July 20th is recorded in the north-western part of Poland.

Intense precipitation in the vast areas of the country occurring throughout the period under consideration resulted in water surplus. Particularly high CWB values were recorded in the south of Poland. Excess of water is still occurring in the following voivodeships: opolskie, śląskie, małopolskie, świętokrzyskie, podkarpackie, lubelskie and mazowieckie.

The area affected by agricultural drought has decreased in relation to the previous reporting period in the following crops:

  • Spring cereals,
  • Winter cereals,
  • Strawberries.

The number of gminas and the percentage of the potential area of arable land affected by agricultural drought have decreased as well. However, in case of maize for grain, maize for silage, fruit shrubs, legumes and ground vegetables the range of agricultural drought has grown.

Lack of sufficient precipitation can still be observed in the north-western part of Poland, where it leads to considerable water deficit in soil. Due to a constant water shortage, agricultural drought is still recorded in the following voivodeships: zachodniopomorskie, wielkopolskie, lubuskie and pomorskie. To a lesser extent, water deficit is also affecting crops in warmińsko-mazurskie and dolnośląskie voivodeships.

Executive Director

Prof. dr hab. Wiesław Oleszek

Report prepared by: Dr hab. Andrzej Doroszewski, prof. IUNG-PIB, Dr hab. Rafał Pudełko, Dr Katarzyna Żyłowska, Dr Jan Jadczyszyn, Mgr Piotr Koza, Mgr Elżbieta Wróblewska, Mgr Agata Ścibior

Contact
Institute of Soil Science and Plants Cultivation
State Research Institute
ul. Czartoryskich 8, 24-100 Puławy

Zakład Agrometeorologii i Zastosowań Informatyki
phone: 81 4786 752

Zakład Gleboznawstwa Erozji i Ochrony Gruntów
phone: 81 4786 779

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