Comment from Agrometeorologist

Communication report regarding the incidences of drought conditions in Poland

The Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation – State Research Institute, in accordance with the Act of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development, has calculated the climatic water balance values for all 2477 Polish municipalities (gminas) and, based on soil categories, assessed the current risk of agricultural drought.

In the seventh reporting period, i.e. from May 21st to July 20th, 2022, the average value of Climatic Water Balance (CWB), which is the basis for assessing the risk of agricultural drought, was negative and equalled -106 mm. In the current sixty-day reporting period, the average CWB value has increased in relation to the previous reporting period (May 11th – July 10th) by 13 mm.

Water deficit for agricultural crops was still recorded across all the country.

The highest water deficit, ranging from -160 to -229 mm, occurred in the Trzebnica Embankment. Considerably high water deficit was also recorded in the Silesian Lowland, from -160 to -219 mm. High water shortages occurred also in the area of the Greater Poland Lowland and the Odra River Gorge in the Lubusz Land, from -160 to -189 mm, and in the Sandomierz Basin and the Slovincian Coastland, from -160 to -179 mm. In the vast area of Poland, water deficit ranged from -120 to 159 mm, whilst in the area of the Masurian Lake District, the eastern part of the Pomeranian Lake District, in the Sudeten Foothills, the Silesian Upland, the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland, the Lesser Poland Upland, the Lublin Upland and the Podlasie Lowland, water shortages were less severe, and ranged from 0 to -119 mm.

Based on the humidity conditions in the sixth reporting period, IUNG-PIB states the occurrence of agricultural drought in the area of Poland.

Below we present the occurrence of agricultural drought in the area of Poland.

Agricultural drought occurred in fourteen voivodeships in the country.

Agricultural drought was recorded in twelve crops:

  • Maize for grain,
  • Maize for silage,
  • Fruit shrubs,
  • Legumes,
  • Spring cereals,
  • Winter cereals,
  • Ground vegetables,
  • Tobacco,
  • Strawberries,
  • Fruit trees,
  • Hops,
  • Potatoes.

In the seventh reporting period, from May 21st to July 20th, 2022, agricultural drought affected maize for grain the most. Drought was recorded in 476 municipalities (19.22% of all municipalities in Poland). In relation to the previous reporting period (May 11th –July 10th, 2022), the number of municipalities affected by agricultural drought has decreased by 1.97%.

Agricultural drought was recorded in the area of 3.39% of arable land, which is 0.32% more than in the previous reporting period.

Detailed data on drought occurrence in maize for grain in particular voivodeships are presented in table 1.

Table 1. Agricultural drought in maize for grain

No.VoivodeshipTotal number of municipalitiesNumber of municipalities at riskShare of municipalities at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.Lubuskie826579.2724.27
2.Wielkopolskie22616472.5712.44
3.Dolnośląskie1699254.4413.75
4.Opolskie712535.211.15
5.Podkarpackie1605534.383.79
6.Zachodniopomorskie1131210.620.21
7.Lubelskie213219.860.48
8.Łódzkie177169.040.71
9.Kujawsko-pomorskie14474.860.15
10.Warmińsko-mazurskie11643.450.59
11.Małopolskie18252.750.08
12.Pomorskie12332.440.18
13.Świętokrzyskie10221.960.06
14.Mazowieckie31451.590.06

In the seventh reporting period, the largest area affected by agricultural drought occurred also in maize for silage. It was recorded in 476 municipalities (19.22% of all municipalities in Poland). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of municipalities affected by agricultural drought has decreased by 1.97%.

Agricultural drought was recorded in the area of 3.39% of arable land, which is 0.32% more than in the previous reporting period.

Detailed data on drought occurrence in maize for silage in particular voivodeships are presented in table 2.

Table 2. Agricultural drought in maize for silage

No.VoivodeshipTotal number of municipalitiesNumber of municipalities at riskShare of municipalities at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.Lubuskie826579.2724.27
2.Wielkopolskie22616472.5712.44
3.Dolnośląskie1699254.4413.75
4.Opolskie712535.211.15
5.Podkarpackie1605534.383.79
6.Zachodniopomorskie1131210.620.21
7.Lubelskie213219.860.48
8.Łódzkie177169.040.71
9.Kujawsko-pomorskie14474.860.15
10.Warmińsko-mazurskie11643.450.59
11.Małopolskie18252.750.08
12.Pomorskie12332.440.18
13.Świętokrzyskie10221.960.06
14.Mazowieckie31451.590.06

Agricultural drought affected fruit shrubs as well. It was recorded in 356 municipalities (14.37% of all municipalities in Poland). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of municipalities affected by agricultural drought has decreased by 9.45%.

Agricultural drought was recorded in the area of 3.15% of arable land, which is 1.49% less than in the previous reporting period.

Detailed data on drought occurrence in fruit shrubs in particular voivodeships are presented in table 3.

Table 3. Agricultural drought in fruit shrubs

No.VoivodeshipTotal number of municipalitiesNumber of municipalities at riskShare of municipalities at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.Wielkopolskie22613459.2911.64
2.Lubuskie824757.3224.08
3.Dolnośląskie1698449.7014.85
4.Podkarpackie1604125.622.35
5.Opolskie711318.310.43
6.Zachodniopomorskie11376.190.09
7.Lubelskie213125.630.21
8.Warmińsko-mazurskie11643.450.17
9.Łódzkie17763.390.02
10.Pomorskie12332.440.08
11.Kujawsko-pomorskie14432.080.04
12.Świętokrzyskie10210.980.03
13.Małopolskie18210.550.00

Agricultural drought also occurred in legumes. It was recorded in 234 municipalities (9.45% of all municipalities in Poland). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of municipalities affected by agricultural drought has decreased by 13.49%.

Agricultural drought was recorded in the area of 2.17% of arable land, which is 0.42% more than in the previous reporting period.

Detailed data on drought occurrence in legumes in particular voivodeships are presented in table 4.

Table 4. Agricultural drought in legumes

No.VoivodeshipTotal number of municipalitiesNumber of municipalities at riskShare of municipalities at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.Lubuskie823947.5620.83
2.Dolnośląskie1696940.8311.29
3.Wielkopolskie2268638.056.61
4.Podkarpackie1602213.751.15
5.Opolskie7145.630.05
6.Zachodniopomorskie11343.540.04
7.Lubelskie21352.350.07
8.Pomorskie12321.630.02
9.Kujawsko-pomorskie14421.390.00
10.Świętokrzyskie10210.980.00

Agricultural drought also affected spring cereals. It was recorded in 188 municipalities (7.59% of all municipalities in Poland). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of municipalities affected by agricultural drought has decreased by 17.12%.

Agricultural drought was recorded in the area of 1.86% of arable land, which is 2.89% less than in the previous reporting period.

Detailed data on drought occurrence in spring cereals in particular voivodeships are presented in table 5.

Table 5. Agricultural drought in spring cereals

No.VoivodeshipTotal number of municipalitiesNumber of municipalities at riskShare of municipalities at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.Lubuskie823036.5919.97
2.Dolnośląskie1696136.0910.59
3.Wielkopolskie2266930.534.90
4.Podkarpackie1601710.620.37
5.Zachodniopomorskie11343.540.02
6.Lubelskie21341.880.03
7.Świętokrzyskie10210.980.00
8.Pomorskie12310.810.01
9.Kujawsko-pomorskie14410.690.00

Agricultural drought also occurred in winter cereals. It was recorded in 115 municipalities (4.64% of all municipalities in Poland). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of municipalities affected by agricultural drought has decreased by 9.41%.

Agricultural drought was recorded in the area of 1.08% of arable land, which is 1.21% less than in the previous reporting period.

Detailed data on drought occurrence in winter cereals in particular voivodeships are presented in table 6.

Table 6. Agricultural drought in winter cereals

No.VoivodeshipTotal number of municipalitiesNumber of municipalities at riskShare of municipalities at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.Lubuskie822631.7115.59
2.Dolnośląskie1694928.996.65
3.Wielkopolskie2263917.261.44
4.Podkarpackie16010.620.01

Agricultural drought affected ground vegetables as well. It was recorded in 103 municipalities (4.16% of all municipalities in Poland). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of municipalities affected by agricultural drought has decreased by 1.05%.

Agricultural drought was recorded in the area of 0.95% of arable land, which is 0.32% less than in the previous reporting period.

Detailed data on drought occurrence in ground vegetables in particular voivodeships are presented in table 7.

Table 7. Agricultural drought in ground vegetables

No.VoivodeshipTotal number of municipalitiesNumber of municipalities at riskShare of municipalities at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.Lubuskie822631.7114.65
2.Dolnośląskie1694627.226.00
3.Wielkopolskie2263013.270.93

In this sixty-day reporting period, agricultural drought was also recorded in tobacco. It occurred in 100 municipalities (4.04% of all municipalities in Poland). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of municipalities affected by agricultural drought has decreased by 0.80%.

Agricultural drought was recorded in the area of 1.06% of arable land, which is 0.37% more than in the previous reporting period.

Detailed data on drought occurrence in tobacco in particular voivodeships are presented in table 8.

Table 8. Agricultural drought in tobacco

No.VoivodeshipTotal number of municipalitiesNumber of municipalities at riskShare of municipalities at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.Lubuskie822631.7116.27
2.Dolnośląskie1694325.446.79
3.Wielkopolskie2263013.271.00
4.Podkarpackie16010.620.00

Agricultural drought affected strawberries as well. It was recorded in 79 municipalities (3.19% of all municipalities in Poland). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of municipalities affected by agricultural drought has decreased by 4.68%.

Agricultural drought was recorded in the area of 0.69% of arable land, which is 0.46% less than in the previous reporting period.

Detailed data on drought occurrence in strawberries in particular voivodeships are presented in table 9.

Table 9. Agricultural drought in fruit strawberries

No.VoivodeshipTotal number of municipalitiesNumber of municipalities at riskShare of municipalities at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.Lubuskie822530.4911.05
2.Dolnośląskie1694023.674.57
3.Wielkopolskie226146.190.45

Agricultural drought was also recorded in fruit trees. It was recorded in 52 municipalities (2.10% of all municipalities in Poland). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of municipalities affected by agricultural drought has decreased by 0.52%.

Agricultural drought was recorded in the area of 0.32% of arable land, which is 0.06% more than in the previous reporting period.

Detailed data on drought occurrence in fruit trees in particular voivodeships are presented in table 10.

Table 10. Agricultural drought in fruit trees

No.VoivodeshipTotal number of municipalitiesNumber of municipalities at riskShare of municipalities at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.Lubuskie822125.615.52
2.Dolnośląskie1692514.792.11
3.Wielkopolskie22662.650.10

Agricultural drought also occurred in hops. It was recorded in 36 municipalities (7.45% of all municipalities in Poland). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of municipalities affected by agricultural drought has increased by 1.37%.

Agricultural drought was recorded in the area of 0.18% of arable land, which is 0.17% more than in the previous reporting period.

Detailed data on drought occurrence in hops in particular voivodeships are presented in table 11.

Table 11. Agricultural drought in hops

No.VoivodeshipTotal number of municipalitiesNumber of municipalities at riskShare of municipalities at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.Lubuskie821720.733.20
2.Dolnośląskie1691710.061.19
3.Wielkopolskie22620.880.02

Agricultural drought was also recorded in potatoes. It was recorded in 25 municipalities (1.01% of all municipalities in Poland). In relation to the previous reporting period, the number of municipalities affected by agricultural drought has increased by 1.01%.

Agricultural drought was recorded in the area of 0.07% of arable land, which is 0.07% more than in the previous reporting period.

Detailed data on drought occurrence in potatoes in particular voivodeships are presented in table 12.

Table 12. Agricultural drought in potatoes

No.VoivodeshipTotal number of municipalitiesNumber of municipalities at riskShare of municipalities at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.Lubuskie821214.631.09
2.Dolnośląskie169137.690.51

This year, in May, the temperature was highly diversified. The highest values were recorded in the south and southwestern regions of Poland, exceeding 15°C. In these areas, it exceeded the multiannual norm by 0.5-1.5°C. To the north from these regions, the temperature was lower, ranging from 14 to 15°C (but still exceeding the norm by about 0.5°C), whilst the further to the northeast, the lower was the temperature. In the large area of central Poland temperatures ranged from 12 to 14°C (0 to 0.5°C lower than the norm) and the lowest values were recorded in the north, ranging from 10 to 12°C (1-2°C lower than the norm).

This year’s June was warm. The highest temperatures were recorded in Lublin Polesie, in the Sandomierz Basin, and in the Lowlands: the Masovian, the Greater Poland and the Silesian, as well as in the Sudeten and Carpathian Foothills, ranging from 19 to more than 20°C (and exceeding the norm by 2 to 3°C). To the north, the temperature was lower, ranging from 18 to 19°C. The lowest temperatures were recorded in the Masurian and Pomeranian Lake Districts: from 16 to 18°C, however, they still exceeded the norm by 1.5 to 2°C.

In the first decade of July, in the Pomeranian Lake District, temperatures were low and ranged from 14 to 17°C. The highest temperatures were recorded in Lublin Polesie and in the eastern part of the Carpathian Foothills, reaching 19°C. In the vast majority of the country, temperatures ranged from 17 to 19°C. In the second decade of the month, the lowest temperatures occurred in the northeast and east of Poland, ranging from 17 to 18°C. The further to the southwest, the higher was the temperature, exceeding 20° in the Sudeten Foothills and the Silesian Lowland.

In May, considerably high insolation was recorded in the south of Poland, reaching from 240 to 320 hours, which is 20-80 hours more than multiannual norm. In the northern part of the country, sunshine duration was lower, from 200 to 240 hours, with the exception of the coastline, where it ranged from 220 to 240 hours with the sun. In this part of the country, insolation remained within the norm. Only in the northeast of Poland, insolation was lower than the multiannual norm by about 20-50 hours.

In June, the highest number of sunny days was recorded in the eastern part of the Pomeranian Lake District, and in the southeastern and southwestern parts of Poland, where the sun was shining from 290 to 330 hours. In the rest of the country, insolation ranged from 260 to 290 hours. In the whole territory of Poland, insolation exceeded the norm by 20-100 hours.

The first decade of July was characterized by very low insolation. The lowest values were recorded in the Lublin Upland, the Sandomierz Basin, in the Silesian and the Greater Poland Uplands, and in the eastern regions of the Masurian Lake District, reaching 60 to 70 hours. The highest insolation was recorded in the Slovincian Coastland, from 90 to 100 hours. In the rest of the country, insolation ranged from 70 to 90 hours. In the second decade of the month, the highest insolation was recorded in the southwest of Poland, ranging from 100 to 110 hours, and the lowest in the northeast – from 65 to 80 hours.

In May, low precipitation values were recorded in the Beskids, the Carpathian Foothills, the Sandomierz Basin, the Lublin Upland, in the Lake Districts as well as in the Greater Poland Lowland, where they ranged from 10 to 30 mm and constituted 20 to 50% of the multiannual norm. Whilst relatively high precipitation, ranging from 50 to 80 mm, occurred in the Masurian and Pomeranian Lake Districts (90-160% of the norm). In the vast majority of the country, precipitation ranged from 30 to 40 mm and constituted 50-70% of the norm.

In June, low precipitation values were recorded in the southeast and northwest of Poland, ranging from 20 to 50 mm (30-90% of the norm); whilst in the central Poland they were higher and ranged from 50 to 80 mm (90-110% of the norm). In the area of the Masurian Lake District, precipitation was even higher and reached 80-120 mm (110-160 of the norm).

The first decade of July has been the most humid period this year so far. Especially high precipitation was recorded in the Uplands: the Lesser Poland and Lublin, in the Sandomierz Basin, in Lublin Polesie, in the Podlasie Lowland and the Pomeranian Lake District, reaching from 60 to more than 120 mm. It is worth mentioning that this intense precipitation occurred in the area that had suffered the highest water deficit in the period of May 1st – June 30th, 2022. Whilst the lowest precipitation occurred in the Greater Poland Upland and the Greater Poland Lake District, in the central part of the Masovian Lowland, and in the Masurian Lake District, ranging from 15 to 30 mm. In the rest of the country precipitation ranged from 30 to 60 mm. In the second decade of the month, the highest precipitation occurred in the northeast and east of Poland, ranging from 30 to 125 mm. In the rest of the country precipitation was less intense and ranged from 10 to 30 mm.

Both in the first and in the second agricultural drought reporting period, relatively low evapotranspiration values were recorded, namely, 2.5 mm/day. Due to higher precipitation values recorded in the second and third decade of May, water deficit decreased in relation to the first reporting period. In the third report, however, evapotranspiration increased to the value of 2.9 mm/day, in the fourth report to 3.3 mm/day, in the fifth to 3.8 mm/day, and in both the sixth and seventh report, it reached the value of 3.9 mm/day.

We would like to inform that in accordance with the definition included in the Act of 7 July 2005 on insurance of agricultural crops and livestock (Journal of Laws No. 150, item 1249, as amended): “drought” means damage caused by the occurrence, in any sixty-day period from March 21st to September 30th, of a decline in the climatic water balance below the value specified for each crop species and soil type”. Thus, occurrence of drought in whichever sixty-day reporting period causes yield reduction by at least 20% at municipality level in relation to the yield obtained in the multiannual average weather conditions.

In this year's growing season, from March 21st to July 20th, seven agricultural drought monitoring reports have been prepared. During this reporting period, water shortages reducing yield by at least 20% compared to the yield obtained in average weather conditions were recorded for the following crops:

  • Spring cereals,
  • Winter cereals,
  • Rapeseed and turnip rape,
  • Strawberries,
  • Fruit shrubs,
  • Maize for grain,
  • Maize for silage,
  • Legumes,
  • Tobacco,
  • Ground vegetables,
  • Fruit trees,
  • Hops,
  • Potatoes.

The occurrence of such yield losses in the country in the period of March 21st – July 20th, 2022, is presented in table 13.

Table 13. Agricultural drought in Poland in the period of March 21st – July 20th, 2022.

No.CropNumber of municipalities at riskShare of municipalities at risk [%]Share of the area at risk [%]
1.Spring cereal209684.6238.17
2.Winter cereal190977.0725.19
3.Rapeseed and turnip rape173470.0020.97
4.Strawberries171869.3622.16
5.Fruit shrubs162765.6819.55
6.Maize for grain113045.62 9.36
7.Maize for silage113045.62 9.36
8.Legumes103441.74 10.49
9.Tobacco47018.97 3.94
10.Ground vegetables 46818.89 3.34
11.Fruit trees44117.80 2.55
12. Hops 411.66 0.18
13.Potatoes251.010.07

Detailed data on yield losses incurred in particular voivodeships presented using maps and tables are available on the website of the Agricultural Drought Monitoring System at: www.susza.iung.pulawy.pl, where you can select:

Drought risk maps \ Select crop \ Select period – in the case of period, the “Maximum range” option should be selected in order to obtain the following information on drought occurrence:


in a selected voivodeship. The presented data is the sum of all municipalities and areas affected by drought from the beginning of the monitoring period (from March 21st) in a given year up to the current report. We would like to emphasize that only the maximum range is the most reliable for indication of drought occurrence at the country, voivodeship, municipality and cadastral parcels’ levels.

This year’s weather conditions, considering:


have led to a high water deficit for agricultural crops across the country, resulting in yield losses due to water shortage in all the voivodeships in Poland.

It should be noticed, however, that the observed alleviation of drought conditions in the current sixty-day reporting period resulted mainly from intense precipitation that occurred in the 1st decade of July in the area affected by the highest water deficit in the previous reporting periods (i.e. southeastern part of Poland).

Executive Director

Prof. dr hab. Wiesław Oleszek

Report prepared by: Dr hab. Andrzej Doroszewski, prof. IUNG-PIB, Dr hab. Rafał Pudełko, Dr Katarzyna Żyłowska, Dr Jan Jadczyszyn, Mgr Piotr Koza, Mgr Anna Jędrejek, Mgr Małgorzata Kozak, Adrian Matczuk, Mgr Beata Murat, Mgr Agata Ścibior

Contact
Institute of Soil Science and Plants Cultivation
State Research Institute
ul. Czartoryskich 8, 24-100 Puławy

Zakład Agrometeorologii i Zastosowań Informatyki
phone: 81 4786 752

Zakład Gleboznawstwa Erozji i Ochrony Gruntów
phone: 81 4786 779

W przypadku pytań dotyczących suszy proponujemy kontakt poprzez formularz zapytania, który należy wysłać mailem na adres susza@iung.pulawy.pl

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