Comment from Agrometeorologist

Communication report regarding the incidences of drought conditions in Poland

The Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation – State Research Institute, in accordance with the Act of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development, has calculated the climatic water balance values for all 2477 Polish municipalities and, based on soil categories, assessed the current risk of agricultural drought.

In the first reporting period, i.e. from March 21st to May 20th, 2023, the average value of Climatic Water Balance (CWB), which is the basis for assessing the risk of agricultural drought, was negative and equalled -29 mm.

The highest water deficit, ranging from -50 to -119 mm occurred in the area of the Łask Plateau, the Masurian and the Pomeranian Lake Districts, and in the Sudeten Foothills. Slightly less severe water deficit, above -50 mm, was recorded in the majority of the remaining area.

Based on the humidity conditions in the first reporting period, IUNG-PIB states no agricultural drought occurrence in the area of Poland.

The air temperature in March this year was high throughout the country. The highest temperature was recorded in the western, south-western and southern regions of the country, from 5 to 6°C. Towards the north-eastern regions of Poland, the temperature was decreasing. In the wide area of the country, temperature ranged from 3 to 5°C, whilst in the north-easternmost part it ranged from 2 to 3°C. In the eastern, south-eastern and southern regions of Poland, temperature exceeded the multiannual norm (1991-2020) by 1.5 to 2.5°C, and in the vast area of western, north-western and northern Poland by 0.5 to 1.5°C.

In April, the air temperatures remained within the norm, reaching an average of 8°C. The lowest recorded temperature was 6.5°C, and the highest 12.5°C.

In May, the air temperature was relatively low. In the first decade, temperature ranges from 8 to 10°C in the east and from 10 to 12°C in the west of Poland. The second decade was warmer, with temperatures ranging from 10 to 12°C in the south and from 12 to 14°C in the rest of the country.

Precipitation in March this year was very diverse. In the eastern and western part of the country, precipitation was high and ranged from 40 to even 90 mm, and constituted from 110 to 200% of the multiannual norm. In the rest of Poland, precipitation was less intense, from 20 to 40 mm (50-110% of the norm).

April in terms of precipitation was also very diverse. The highest precipitation values were recorded in the first and second decade of the month, reaching 15 mm. In the third decade, precipitation was less intense, reaching 10 mm.

In the first decade of May, precipitation throughout the country was scarce, in the north of Poland even less than 5 mm. However, in Lesser Poland and in the northern part of the Lublin region, precipitation was more intense, ranging from 20 to 40 mm. In the rest of the country, precipitation from 5 to 20 mm was recorded. In the second decade of the month, precipitation was higher, ranging from 25 to 85 mm in the south-eastern part of Poland, and from 10 to 25 mm in the rest of the country.

In this sixty-day reporting period, the greatest crop water shortages ranged from -50 to -119 mm. According to the current weather conditions, crop losses due to water deficit, resulting in the yield reduction by at least 20% at the scale of municipality, in relation to yield obtained in multiannual average weather conditions, did not occur. On the other hand, in the south of the country, water resources are large, and there is an excess of water in agricultural fields, which may also result in a significant reduction in crop yields.

Executive Director

Prof. dr hab. Wiesław Oleszek

Dr hab. Andrzej Doroszewski, prof. IUNG-PIB, Dr hab. Rafał Pudełko, Dr Katarzyna Żyłowska, Dr Jan Jadczyszyn, Mgr Piotr Koza, Mgr Anna Jędrejek, Mgr Małgorzata Kozak, Mgr Tomasz Jóźwicki, Mgr Beata Murat, Adrian Matczuk

Institute of Soil Science and Plants Cultivation
State Research Institute
ul. Czartoryskich 8, 24-100 Puławy

Zakład Agrometeorologii i Zastosowań Informatyki
phone: 81 4786 879, 81 4786 752

Zakład Gleboznawstwa Erozji i Ochrony Gruntów
phone: 81 4786 779

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Opracowanie IUNG-PIB 2020 na zlecenie Misterstwa Rolnictwa i Rozwoju Wsi